Linear Model of Communication
It is a one way model to communicate with others. It consists of the sender encoding a message and channeling it to the receiver in the presence of noise. Draw backs – the linear model assumes that there is a clear cut beginning and end to communication. It also displays no feedback from the receiver. • For example; a letter, email, text message, lecture. There are two main linear model which are used to explain the human communication process. They are ... ... ... • Shannon and Weaver Model (1949)
The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation, which they deemed noise. The noise could also mean the absence of signal. • Berlo’s SMCR Model (1960)
In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver’s linear model of communication and created the SMCR Model of Communication. The Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication separated the model into clear parts and has been expanded upon by other scholars.
Shannon – Weaver Model
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916- February 24,2001) was an American mathematician, electronic engineer and cryptographer.He is known as “the father of information theory”. He was a student of Michigan University. He was a graduate in both engineering and mathematics. He worked in Bell laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Institute for Advanced Studies.He got IEEE Medal of Honor, Kyoto Prize, Harvey Prize awards. [pic] Warren Weaver (July 17, 1894- Nov 24, 1978) was an American Scientist, Mathematician and Science administrator.He is widely recognized as one of the pioneers of machine translator and as important figure in creating support for science in US. He was a student of University of Wisconsin- Madison. Introduction:
Shannon- Weaver model is mother of all model in communication. The theory based on how a concept goes to a place from another. It is also known as mathematical theory of communication. Shannon published “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” article in two parts in the July and October numbers of the “Bell System Technical Journal” in 1949. The book co-authored with Weaver “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” reprints Shannon’s article. Later Weaver explained the model and popularized it.
C = W log2(1+S/N) where,
C – Channel capacity
W – Bandwith
S – Signal level
N – Noise power
This model is specially designed to develop the effective communication between sender and receiver. Also they find factors which affecting the communication process called “Noise”. At first the model was developed to improve the Technical communication. Later it’s widely applied in the field of Communication. Communication model:
The process of Shannon- Weaver model is as below ... ... ... [pic]Some key points of this model are given below ... ... ... • Information source chooses desired message among a set of possible messages which can be mixture of any form of written or spoken, image or sound. • Transmitter changes the message into the signal, also known as encoder. • Message is the thing which is sent and received and all communication is about. • Channel is the path that message passes through from the transmitter to the receiver. • Receiver is the reverse transmitter which changes the signal back into the message, also known as decoder. • Destination is the target place of the transmitted message. • Noise is any unwanted additions to the transmitted signal which cause distortion or error in...
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