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Judgment- a mental act which affirms of denies something
Proposition- a sentence which affirms or denies something and could either be true or false

LOGICAL FORM
- A proposition is in logical form if it follows a consistent pattern S is P (Subject-Copula-Predicate). - The copula consists of is, are and am for affirmative and is not, are not and am not for it’s negative sense all of which are tenseless

Ex: Manny Pacquiao boxes (reduced to logical form) Manny Pacquiao is a boxer

Jose Rizal wrote the poem “Sa aking mga kababata” (reduced to logical form) Jose Rizal is the poet who composed the poem “ Sa aking mga kababata”

CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION- an attributed proposition that haw a subject-predicate relationship where the subject is either affirmed or denied by the predicate. Basic elements:
1. Subject- the one spoken of, the one about whom or of which something is affirmed or denied. 2. Predicate- what is affirmed or denied of the subject. 3. Copula- links the subject with the predicate; is, are, am (+) is not, are not, am not (-)

QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE PROPOSITION:
1. Quantity- the quantity of the subject. It can either be singular, particular or universal 2. Quality- the copula is the qualifier of the proposition. Through the copula we can identify if the proposition is negative or affirmative.

a. Affirmative- a proposition that unites the subject and the predicate by means of an affirmative copula. It affirms the identity of S and P
b. Negative- a proposition that unites the subject and the predicate by means of a negative copula. It denies the identity of S and P

SYMBOLS OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS

A universal/singular E

Affirmative (+) Negative (-)

I particular O

A proposition- universal or singular...
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