Lev Vygotsky:

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Lev Vygotsky (November 17, 1896 – June 11, 1394) was a Russian psychologist. Vygotsky was a pioneering psychologist and his major works span six separate volumes, written over roughly 10 years, from Psychology of Art (1925) to Thought and Language [or Thinking and Speech] (1934). Vygotsky's interests in the fields of developmental psychology, child development, and education were extremely diverse. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." He argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (Vygotsky 1978, p. 90). Vygotsky’s theory differs from Piaget in three different ways. 1.Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean Piaget’s understanding of child development, Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. 2.The more knowledgeable other refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher Ability level than the learner, with respects to a particular task, process, or concept. MKO’s Can be peers, a younger person, teachers, coaches, older adult, or even computers.

3.The zone of proximal development is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration. It is also the student’s ability to solve problems independently. “According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environments. Initially children develop these tools to serve solely as social functions, ways to communicate needs. Vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills.”(http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html) In modern day terms,...
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