Leadership and Management
If followers are over budget on travel expenses or fail to come to work on time, then managers use various levers in the accounting or performance management system to correct the situation. These systems help followers to behave in both a consistent and an efficient manner. Organizations tend to be more successful when followers exhibit those behaviors most closely aligned with organizational goals.
A manager is a person who directs the work of employees and is responsible for results. An effective manager brings a degree of order and consistency to tasks. A leader, by contrast, inspires employees with a vision and helps them cope with change. D. Hellriegel, J. Slocum Jr., and R. Woodman, Organizational Behavior (7th ed.)
Demographic changes can have big impact on any team or organization, leadership is the key to aligning organizational systems and follower behaviors around a new organizational vision.
Successful leaders are also able to align followers’ behaviors with this new vision and systems. But changing followers’ behaviors and organizational systems, structure, and goals takes a tremendous amount of skill and effort. You will see that it takes a combination of both leadership and management skills to successfully implement any team or organizational change effort
The Rational Approach to Organizational Change
• Beer (1988, 1999) has offered a rational and straightforward approach to organizational change that addresses many of the issues raised by the other authors. • Beer ’s model also provides a road map for leadership practitioners wanting to implement an organizational change initiative, as well as a diagnostic tool for understanding why change initiatives fail.
C=D×M×P>R C = amount of change (jumlah Perubahan) D = Dissatisfaction (Ketidakpuasan) M = Model (model perubahan) P = Process ( Proses bagaimana inisiatif perubahan) R = Ressistance (Penolakan Perubahan)