Leadership

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INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of this study is to identify the International Leaders and define the main attribute that they should possess. In order to classify International Leaders’ personality two different style have been examined: Western style of leadership and Eastern style of leadership. The first part of this report looks at the factors which cause the needs of International Leaders: the first factors are globalisation and immigration, the second factor is cultural differences, which affect people perception of leadership. The second part examine two different styles: East leadership style which is represented by China, South Korea and Japan, Western leadership style which will be illustrates by the United Kingdom and The United States of America. The third, last part summarise skills which leaders should have in order to perform well globally and be able to manage international teams, organisations.

FORCES CAUSING DEVELOPING INTERNATIONAL LEADERS.

In recent decades most of the large companies moving from domestic market to international market. As the ...........58% of companies in the UK expand abroad. For example, Marriott International Inc. operates in almost 70 different countries with approximately 35% of new room growth coming from outside the US (Mariot International Inc. 2006). Similarly, Starbucks operates in 34 international markets (Starbauck, 2004) and McDonalds currently operates in more that 100 different countries (McDonald2003). On the other hand, migration and immigration recently is becoming more popular than ever , especially within young generation wanting to expand their knowledge and cultural differences. People also move because of economic, political and religion issues. For example the number of foreign-born US has steadily increased from 7.9% in 1990 to 12% in 2003 (Migration Information Source 2004). Approximately 53% of this population was born in Latin America, 25% in Asia, 14% in Europe and 8% in other regions of the world. Such an expansion increase international diversity within the organization. This facts force managers to understand cultural background of workers at a level not faced in the industry’s history never before.

Another factor which increase companies investment in developing International Leaders is cultural differences. People perception on leadership is not just influencing by their personality but also by the cultural background. Shaw (1990), suggests that people choose leaders based on ‘cognitive structures’ that employees develop through their culture, and that are based on information which may be derived from their background. More specifically, subordinates have an idea of what a leader should be, e.g. how leaders should behave, and link particular behavior with leaders and non-leaders (Cronshaw and Lord, 1987). The perception of leadership may vary from country to country. Robbins (2005 p.381) notes that ‘National culture affects leadership style by way of the follower. Leaders cannot choose their styles at will. They are constrained by the cultural conditions that their followers have come to expect’. For instance, Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees; Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen as weak; and Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak infrequently. Shane’s (1995) study of 1228 employees in 30 countries showed preferences for leadership style based on power distance. By power distance Hofstede (1997) means the way that power is used by leaders in relation to their subordinates, this is usually a cultural notion. The researchers found that employees from high power distance countries (China, India, Pakistan) prefer a more authoritative leadership style in stimulating innovation. While, employees from low power distance countries (UK, USA, Canada, Australia) prefer a participative leadership style, where support for innovation is...
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