Name of leader: Tokugawa leyasu
Years in power: 13years
Political, social, and economic conditions prior to leader gaining power:
The Ashikaga Shogunate ruled Japan from 1336-1573
Weak puppet emperors were placed on the throne, and the bushi vassals (regional warrior leaders in Japan who ruled small kingdoms and administered laws, collected revenues, built up private armies, etc.) were free to destroy any local rivals or seize land from peasants, the old aristocracy or competing warlords, creating political turmoil. The rising power of the bushi led to decline in power of the court aristocracy and a rise in power for the samurai. Civil wars were common, with a full-scale war breaking out during 1467-1477 when rival heirs fought to claim the shogunate with the support of warlords. Warlords continued to gain power, with Japan divided into 300 little kingdoms ruled by daimyos (warlord rulers). In 1573, Nobunaga overthrew the last Ashikaga shogun and unified most of Honshu (the largest and central island of Japan) by the 1580s. After Nobunaga was killed, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Nobunaga’s general, rose to power. He continued Nobunaga’s campaign and created a system of alliances with the daimyos so he could crush any other resisting opposition. Hideyoshi was the military master of Japan by 1590 In the 1540s, the first Europeans arrived, bringing their religion (Christianity) and new goods (clocks, firearms, printing presses, etc.) After Nobunaga’s death, most of the militant Buddhist groups were crushed, and alarming reports that converts were refusing to obey their overlords made Hideyoshi very skeptical of the religion. Hideyoshi ordered the Christian missionaries to leave and was persecuting Christians and missionaries by the 1590s. The Japanese exchanged copper, silver, pottery and lacquer ware for goods from Indian (like cotton cloth), China (like silks and porcelains) and Southeast Asia (spices) brought to them by Europeans. European commercial contacts encouraged the Japanese to venture out to trade with Korea, the Philippines, Siam, and Formosa.
Ideology, motivation, goals:
Due to fears that missionaries and merchants would overthrow the social order, as well as doubts about European intentions, Toyotomi Hideyoshi began a persecution of Christians which was continued by Tokugawa Ieyasu
Significant actions and events during term of power:
He was granted the position of shogun by the emperor in 1603. He had crushed all his opponents in search of power and control in the Battle of Sekigahara. The thorough and careful inspection over the shogun’s dominion later caused the end of the civil war, also bringing traces of political unity to the Japanese islands.
1570: He would move his headquarters to what was once the Imagawa territory 1570-1582: He expanded his lands and influence through Nobunaga's campaigns (he was forced to kill his first wife to prove his loyalty to Nobunaga) 1584: Ieyasu became an ally with Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Created long lasting period of peace, Lead to long lasting prosperity, established the first family of Shoguns, and Established the Tokugawa Shogun helped rule for the next 250 years. He persecuted both European and Japanese, Christians and drove out any foreign religion and its missionaries
Peoples Analysis Sheet
Name of group: Ming Dynasty
Time period: 1368-1644
Important neighbors: the Yuan Dynasty, Korea, Vietnam
Strengths: Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy and a standing army of one million troops. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million.
Weaknesses: In the late 1500’s weak rulers gained power. Defense efforts drained the treasury. Isolation limited trade.