The Islamic Republic of Pakistan came into being on August 14, 1947. Pakistan has a strategic location in South Asia, surrounded by India, China, Afghanistan and Iran. Pakistan has a total area of 803,940 sq. km and an estimated population of 170 million. Pakistan is a federation, with four federating units, called Provinces, namely, Punjab, Sindh, North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. The capital is Islamabad, and the tribal belt adjoining the NWFP is managed by the Federal Government and is know as FATA i.e; Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have their own political system, yet certain of their subjects are taken care of by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. The Provinces are further divided into Divisions and Districts. The basic administrative unit is a district, being governed by the District Nazim, popularly elected, who is supported by a senior civil officer called District Coordination Officer (DCO) and the District Police Officer (DPO) in the smooth running of the local government, rather a new system introduced by the President Pervez Musharraf regime in 2000 and 2002.
Pakistan has a parliamentary form of government, and the Parliament consists of two Houses, i.e; the Senate (Upper House), giving equal representation to all Provinces, and the national Assembly (Lower House), representing the nation on population and direct adult voting system. The Senate is a permanent legislative body and consists of 100 members. The National Assembly has a total of 342 elected members (272 general seats, 60 women seats and 10 non-muslims (minority) seats). The President is the Head of State and the Prime Minister is the Head of Government. The Provinces have their own Provincial Assemblies, the Chief Minister, and a Governor, who is a nominee of the Federal Government through the President of Pakistan.
Pakistan has enormous importance due to her strategic location; her being the front line state during the Soviet invasion on Afghanistan (1979-1988), and now a front line of defence and a staunch ally of the Allied Nations in the global war on terror. Pakistan has tremendous human and natural resources, excellent minds and brains, beautiful historical places, arts and literature, and has been contributing to the world peace and progress through various international forums, like UN and its Agencies, OIC , SAARC and other international organizations of which Pakistan is a member . The literacy rate is 53% the national language is Urdu and the official language is English; 97% population is muslims and 3% minority (Christian, Hindus, and others). Annual per capita income is $ 736; population growth rate is 1.29 and the life expectancy is 64. About 65% population is in urban area. However, the UNDP Index for Pakistan is at a lower rank due to some of her poor socio-economic indicators. Many more details about Pakistan could be found on her official website www.gov.pk , and its various ministries and departments.
LAW AND ORDER SITUATION IN PAKISTAN:
After 9/11, the US/Nato forces invaded and bombard the Afghan nation, sometimes indiscriminately, which led to the desired goal of destruction of Taliban rule in Afghanistan, but in addition, gave rise to a lot of internal and external problems for Pakistan: the economy, internal security environment and social tranquility jolted badly due to such problems. The spill-over effect of Taliban from Afghanistan into the tribal belt of Pakistan has been under continuous discussion in the western media and US administration, both civilian and military departments. Right from the every day reports of various research institutes in USA and news stories of Washington Post, the New York Times, etc to the well-researched analysis and reports of EUROPOL (TE-SAT,EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report , 2008) and Council on Foreign Relations report on ‘Securing Pakistan’s Tribal Belt (Daniel...
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