Land use and Environmental issues
Any physical development is going to have some environmental impact. The degree or extent of that impact is dependent upon such factors as the category of use, the intensity of the development, and the physical characteristics of the site. Primary land use categories encompass such basic functions as residential, commercial, industrial, recreational, institutional, and agricultural uses. There are some general characteristics of each of these uses that define their environmental impacts as well as potential compatibility issues. For example, the construction of facilities (structures, pavement, etc.) on a site affects the surface permeability and hence increases the amount of surface run-off. This can have an impact upon the water table and on adjacent and/or down-stream sites. Site preparation may require removal of existing vegetation and always requires the regarding of the ground surface, sometimes dramatically, to accommodate the development. This, in turn, may increase soil erosion, stream sedimentation, and disrupt the natural character of a site and its surroundings. Removal of vegetation may also expose a site and its surroundings to wind and sun from which they were previously protected. Disruption of natural site patterns may also have an impact upon wildlife habitats. The kinds of physical changes may also result in significant visual impacts upon a site and its surroundings. The aesthetic response to these visual impacts may be very instrumental in the acceptance of or resistance to new development within its surrounding context. The nature of particular land uses suggests a greater environmental impact for some than for others, at least in respect to certain criteria. For example, industrial site facilities can usually be expected to require more extensive site development than many forms of residential development. On the other hand, different uses, such as certain types of recreational facilities, may be assumed to be low-impact. This may be somewhat misleading however. In some cases a park development may impose a greater impact upon the environment than a residential or a commercial facility by virtue of its demand, from sewage treatment, to traffic generation, to its impact on air and water quality.
Content of environmental Law
The purpose of environmental law is to restrict human activities so that land can be used with minimal impacts on the environment. Environmental law is unique in sense that it encompasses all stakeholders whose activities are going to have an influence on the environment including NGOs, government, citizen, business, companies etc. According to conventional views, purpose of environmental laws was to maintain the order of human society by putting control on human activities that can cause environmental impacts. To achieve this objective they set standards to regulate environmental hazardous activities. With passage of time it was realized that with economic development, environmental issues are becoming more significant and these laws are unable to put barrier on deteriorating activities. So new sort of environmental laws were devised and paradigm shift towards incorporation of society in decision making process which is known as environmental laws. Urbanization and Environmental challenges in Pakistan The environment challenges and issues of Pakistan are primarily associated with an imbalanced social and economic development and compounded with rapid urbanization due to a shift of population from rural to urban areas in recent decades, says the Economic Survey. According to the Survey, giving a thorough picture of national economy during the outgoing fiscal year 2009-10, all major cities of Pakistan face haphazard, unplanned expansion leading to increase in pollution. The rapid growth of cities is a common and persisting demographic phenomenon in Pakistan. This growth has led to an increase in the degree...