# Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Topics: Orders of magnitude, Water, Base Pages: 8 (2216 words) Published: December 9, 2011
Title

Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Purpose

The purpose of this experiment is to determine mass, length, temperature, volume, and density of objects and liquids using common measuring devices and algebraic formulas. The metric system, the most common set of measurements used in science, which includes meters, liters, Celsius, and grams will be used.

Procedure
The following items were used within the experiment:
(1) Metric ruler with centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm), (1) table salt, (1) small number of ice cubes, (1) piece of string, (1) isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol, (1) tap water, (1) distilled water, 25 mL, (1) paper, 5 cm x 5 cm for weighing chemicals, (1) colored drink, (1) beaker, 100 mL, glass (1) burner-fuel, (1) burner-stand, (1) cylinder, 25 mL, (1) 23-mL volumetric flask, (1) Pipet, Serological 2mL, (1) Bulb, Rubber (1) Goggles-Saftey, (1) Scale-Digital-500g, (1) Test Tube (1), 13 x 100 mm, (1) Thermometer, (1) Bolt, (1) Magnet bar, (1) Pipet, Empty Short Stem The following steps were taken:

Prior to commencing the experiment all scientific measurements were reviewed, along with formulas to convert linear Systeme Internationale (S) with other comparable units. The following was reviewed: Length:

1 in =2.54 cm1000 m =1 km
1 km = 0.621 mi1 m = 100 cm
1 m =1.09 yd1 m = 1000 mm
1 m = 3.281 ft1 cm =10 mm
Temperature:
Clesius (C) ; Kelvin (K); Fahrenheit (F); Temperature (T)
TK= T,C + 273TF = (1.8) T,C + 32T,C= (T,C – 32)
1.8
Volume:
1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm3
1 mL = 1 cm31 L = 1.06 qt
Mass:
1 kg = 1000 g 1 lb = 454 g
1 g = 1000 mg1 kg= 2.20 lb
Time:
Seconds (s)
Density:
Liquidsg/mL
solidsg/cc or g/cm3
Dilution of Aqueous Solutions:
Mi = initial molarity of the solution (before dilution)
Vi = initial volume of the solution (before dilution)
Mf = final molarity of the solution (after dilution)
Vf = final volume of solution (after dilution)
There were six different measurements taken: length, warm temperature, cold temperature, volume, mass, density and one solution diluted. For length measurements, three objects () were measured, blah, blah, blah, all of which were under the ruler height. Each object was measured in centimeters and millimeters and rounded to one decimal place. Data was recorded in Data Table 1. For warm temperature measurements, a 100 mL beaker was filled with 50 mL of hot tap water. A thermometer was used to measure the water temperature in Celsius. Data was recorded in data table 1. The beaker of water was placed on the gauze burner stand and brought to a full boil. Temperature was recorded in data table 2. The water boiled for 5 minutes. The water temperature in the beaker was recorded in data table 2. For cold temperature measurements, a 100 mL beaker was filled with 50 mL of cold tap water. The water temperature was recorded in Data table 2. Ice was placed in the beaker with water until the ice reached the very top. The thermometer was placed in the beaker and stirred. A recording was made. The ice water stood for about 5 minutes. The temperature was recorded to data table 2. For volume measurements, a small test tube of water was filled. The water was poured from the test tube into the 2 mL graduated cylinder. The volume of water in Data Table 3 was recorded. An empty thin-stemmed pipet was filled with water. The pipet was vertically placed over a graduated cylinder. Drop of water from the pipet were counted until the amount measured 1 mL. Data was recorded in data table 3. Data table 1 – Length measurements

Object Length (cm)Length (mm)

Data table 2 - Temperature Measurements
Hot water from tap (°C)Boiling Water (°C)Boiling water – 5 minutes (°C)

Cold water from tap (°C)Ice water (°C)Ice water – 5 minutes (°C)

Data Table 3 – Volume measurements

To commence the experiment, two pipet drops of the first chemicals from the data table below (Table 1) were individually...

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