Lab Report

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Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering


Chemical Engineering Process Laboratory I


Experiment F2

Flow Measurement in Closed Conduit and
Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Name:Ang Sok Gek
Chai Chang Er Cherry
Chen Mingli

Matriculation No.:U046941L


Date of Experiment:16th March 2006
Table of Contents

Part I: Flow Measurement in Closed Conduit
A. Introduction3
B. Objectives3
C. Theoretical Background4
D. Experimental Procedures9
E. Results and Calculations12
F. Discussion50
G. Error Analysis58
H. Conclusion61

Part II: Centrifugal Pump Characteristics
I. Introduction62
J. Objectives63
K. Theoretical Background63
L. Experimental Procedures68
M. Safety Precautions68
N. Results and Calculations69
O. Discussion75
P. Error Analysis79
Q. Conclusion80


Appendix I.A
Appendix II.A
Appendix II.B

There are two parts in this experiment where we shall observe the mechanics of fluid flow in a closed conduit and also to find out the characteristics of a centrifugal pump.

In the first part, we applied the principle of pressure difference across fittings in a closed conduit to find out the loss coefficients of these fittings. Thereafter, we determine the individual flow rates of the 3 different lines in the system. With this knowledge, sufficient understanding about the properties and characteristics of the different devices that can be used in a piping system is necessary for the choice of the appropriate devices to be used in future experiments.

In the second part of the experiment, we observe how the flow rate of a fluid changes with respect to the head of the pump. The graph plotted in called a Pump Characteristic Curve. In this experiment, the performance curve deviated from the Euler’s line and shows a trend of a decrease of the head as the flow rate increased. When a convergence graph was plotted, we observed that our results do not agree with theoretical findings. Our results do not converge to a single plot. Explanations for this observation will be discussed in the report.

Part I: Flow Measurement in Closed Conduit
A. Introduction
Knowledge of flow measurement in a closed conduit is very important, especially to chemical engineers. Many of the systems in factories, plants and even our homes involves piping systems; from the very simple piping system in the bathroom in our house to the complicated flow network in the reactors in many chemical plants. Hence, it is essential for us to have knowledge on how different fittings in the piping system affect the fluid flow. Thus, it is desired that students learn about flow measurements in closed conduit.

Measurement of flow rate is required in many situations and is not only important in laboratory experiments but is also necessary to monitor plant operation or to provide information for process control. By measuring pressure, elevation and sometimes, velocity, measurement of losses can be accomplished.

The choice of a flow meter is influenced by the accuracy required, range, cost, complications, ease of reading or data reduction, and service life. The simplest and cheapest device that gives the desired accuracy should be chosen.

The flow in a piping system may be required to pass through a variety of fittings, bends or abrupt changes in area. Additional head losses are encountered, primarily as a result of flow separation. For flow through pipe bends and fittings, the loss coefficient, K, is found to vary with pipe size (diameter) in much the same manner as the friction factor, f, for flow through a straight pipe.

B. Objectives
The aims were of the experiment were to get acquainted with various flow measuring devices such as the venture meter, orifice plate, rotameter and...
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