Koch created four guidelines to determine the causal agents of disease in humans, animals, and plants. Koch proved that a disease-causing agent could be transferred from one organism to another and create the same illness. Isolation of pure cultures and the introduction of the disease-causing agent to a healthy organism will transmit the disease and infect the inoculated organism. Koch's four guidelines by which one must follow to transmit a disease from an infected organism to a healthy one are as followed: 1. The specific organism should be shown to be present in all cases of animals suffering from a specific disease but should not be found in healthy animals.

2. The specific microorganism should be isolated from the diseased animal and grown in pure culture on artificial laboratory media.

3. This freshly isolated microorganism, when inoculated into a healthy laboratory animal, should cause the same disease seen in the original animal.

4. The microorganism should be reisolated in pure culture from the experimental infection.

In this exercise, Penicillium was utilized, a common, safe, mold. Certain species of Penicillium will spoil fruits, vegetables, grains, and grasses. Other species will ripen various chesses. Still, other species are used in the production of antibiotics. The species of Penicillium, italicum is provided for the lab because of its pronounced hyphae. Penicillium italicum, along with Penicillium digitatum attack citrus fruits post-harvest. In this experiment, the effect of Penicillium italicum on two types of citrus fruits and one non-citrus fruits were tested.

Materials & Methods

1. Pick several appropriate fruits.
2. Gently was fruit in cool, soapy water, using a scrub brush on the citrus fruits, then rinse thoroughly with cool running tap water. 3. Place citrus in a beaker and cover with a 10% bleach solution. Let soak for 10 minutes. 4. Rinse thoroughly with cool running tap...

...using Koch’spostulates, it was determined that Pseudomonas syringae was the bacteria causing rot. There are four criteria that must be met when using Koch’spostulates. They are that the organism must be fund in all infected, the organism must be isolated in pure culture then once reinnoculated in a healthy host, must cause the same symptoms and last, the organism must be reisolated in pure culture. All of Koch’s...

...Shockley produced a conceptual design based on certain aspects that are considered to have an effect on the auditor’s capability to endure stress. It has been suggested that, given the shut working connection between auditors and customers and the fact that auditors are paid by their customers, it is emotionally impossible for an auditor to be free from prejudice. Numerous aspects of concern have been noted in the literary works for many years.
Shockley’s conceptual design highlighted on...

...appointed auditor – an external auditor holds office because of legal rules contained in CA 85 and 89.
2
AUDIT THEORIES
Postulates of auditing Academics have attempted to codify certain underlying principles or postulates, which serve as the basis of auditing theory. A postulate is a concept that can be observed to be relevant to some course of study. Certain postulates that underlie the practice of auditing have been...

...Transitive Property | If a = b and b = c, then a = c. |
Addition Postulate | If equal quantities are added to equal quantities, the sums are equal. |
Subtraction Postulate | If equal quantities are subtracted from equal quantities, the differences are equal. |
Multiplication Postulate | If equal quantities are multiplied by equal quantities, the products are equal. (also Doubles of equal quantities are equal.) |
Division...

...Geometry Definitions, Postulates and Theorems
Definitions Name Complementary Angles Supplementary Angles Theorem Vertical Angles Transversal Corresponding angles Same-side interior angles Alternate interior angles Congruent triangles Similar triangles Angle bisector Segment bisector Legs of an isosceles triangle Base of an isosceles triangle Equiangular Perpendicular bisector Altitude
Definition Two angles whose measures have a sum of 90o Two angles whose measures have a...

...Adrian Zwierzchowski
2 IB
Investigation – Von Koch’s snowflake curve
In this investigation I am going to consider a limit curve named after the Swedish mathematician Niels Fabian Helge von Koch. I will try to investigate the perimeter and area of Von Koch’s curve.
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The Koch’s curve has an infinite length because each time the steps above are performed on each line segment of the figure there are four times as many line segments, the...

...congruent to the corresponding part in the other.
(SSS) Side Side Postulate
If the three sides of a triangle are congruent to the three sides of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
(SAS) Side Angle Side Postulate
If two sides and the included angle of a triangle are congruent to two sides and the included angle of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
(ASA) Angle Side Angle Postulate
If two angles and...

...Another postulate of the kinetic molecular theory is that gas particles are always in motion, like the other states of matter. But they are different in that they undergo random translational movement. In solids, the particles mainly experience vibrational motion and in liquids they mainly vibrate and rotate, with some translational motion. Gas particles move rapidly in straight lines, unless acted upon by another particle or the walls of a container. This continuous contact...