Koch created four guidelines to determine the causal agents of disease in humans, animals, and plants. Koch proved that a diseasecausing agent could be transferred from one organism to another and create the same illness. Isolation of pure cultures and the introduction of the diseasecausing agent to a healthy organism will transmit the disease and infect the inoculated organism. Koch's four guidelines by which one must follow to transmit a disease from an infected organism to a healthy one are as followed: 1. The specific organism should be shown to be present in all cases of animals suffering from a specific disease but should not be found in healthy animals.
2. The specific microorganism should be isolated from the diseased animal and grown in pure culture on artificial laboratory media.
3. This freshly isolated microorganism, when inoculated into a healthy laboratory animal, should cause the same disease seen in the original animal.
4. The microorganism should be reisolated in pure culture from the experimental infection.
In this exercise, Penicillium was utilized, a common, safe, mold. Certain species of Penicillium will spoil fruits, vegetables, grains, and grasses. Other species will ripen various chesses. Still, other species are used in the production of antibiotics. The species of Penicillium, italicum is provided for the lab because of its pronounced hyphae. Penicillium italicum, along with Penicillium digitatum attack citrus fruits postharvest. In this experiment, the effect of Penicillium italicum on two types of citrus fruits and one noncitrus fruits were tested.
Materials & Methods
1. Pick several appropriate fruits.
2. Gently was fruit in cool, soapy water, using a scrub brush on the citrus fruits, then rinse thoroughly with cool running tap water. 3. Place citrus in a beaker and cover with a 10% bleach solution. Let soak for 10 minutes. 4. Rinse thoroughly with cool running tap...
...Abstract: It is important to be able to identify pathogenic bacteria that may be causing harm. Tomato crops can be affected by several different pathogenic bacteria. By using Koch’spostulates, it was determined that Pseudomonas syringae was the bacteria causing rot. There are four criteria that must be met when using Koch’spostulates. They are that the organism must be fund in all infected, the organism must be isolated in pure culture then once reinnoculated in a healthy host, must cause the same symptoms and last, the organism must be reisolated in pure culture. All of Koch’spostulates were demonstrated with the tomato.
Introduction: Koch’spostulates is important to determine various pathogens. There are 4 criteria must be met to determine a pathogen. 1) Presence of organism in all hosts, 2) isolation of pathogen in pure culture, 3) pathogenic when introduced into healthy host, 4) reisolated in pure culture. A tomato will be used to test Koch’sPostulates. The bacteria from a rotten tomato will be isolated and grown in pure culture. A healthy tomato will be reinocculated with the grown bacteria. The tomato that shows that same rot as the initial tomato will have the bacteria reisolated and grown under pure culture. If the bacterial colonies look the same, biochemical testing will be done to determine the species of bacteria. It...
...Shockley produced a conceptual design based on certain aspects that are considered to have an effect on the auditor’s capability to endure stress. It has been suggested that, given the shut working connection between auditors and customers and the fact that auditors are paid by their customers, it is emotionally impossible for an auditor to be free from prejudice. Numerous aspects of concern have been noted in the literary works for many years.
Shockley’s conceptual design highlighted on recognized mobility because being seen to b impartial is just as essential from the perspective of adding reliability to the subject of the examine as actual mobility. He has given some algebraic equations to explain the functional credibility of the above 8 aspects.
1. Provision of MAS solutions by the auditor:
As the opportunity of the solutions performed for the consumer by the examine organization increases, the connection between control and auditor becomes more close. Shockley’s conceptual design shows both a good and a bad effect of offering these solutions on the auditor’s mobility.
From a good perspective, offering MAS solutions raises the value of the auditor to the consumer because of the valued solutions offered, therefore raising the habit of the consumer on the auditor which in turn creates it much simpler for the auditor to endure stress given by the consumer and prepare mobility.
On the other side, if seen from a bad perspective, supply of MAS solutions raises...
...misconception that auditors are employed primarily to detect or prevent fraud and error. Duly appointed auditor – an external auditor holds office because of legal rules contained in CA 85 and 89.
2
AUDIT THEORIES
Postulates of auditing Academics have attempted to codify certain underlying principles or postulates, which serve as the basis of auditing theory. A postulate is a concept that can be observed to be relevant to some course of study. Certain postulates that underlie the practice of auditing have been identified: ♦ Truth and fairness – the auditor is concerned that the financial statements under examination conform to law and best practice. ♦ Independence – the auditor is independent through status and is truly objective in expression of opinion. ♦ Evidence – an auditor arrives at his opinion through the systematic collection of evidential data on which his judgement is based. ♦ Responsibility – the auditor does not prepare financial statements or guarantee their accuracy nor is he a business valuer. He is not responsible for the prevention or detection of immaterial fraud. Mautz and Sharaf in their seminal work The Philosophy of Auditing define various concepts which can be seen to be relevant to the present day. Eight further postulates were laid down by Mautz and Sharaf are as follows: (a) Financial statements and financial data are verifiable. (b) There is no necessary conflict of...
...Proof Sheet
Reflexive Property  A quantity is congruent (equal) to itself. a = a 
Symmetric Property  If a = b, then b = a. 
Transitive Property  If a = b and b = c, then a = c. 
Addition Postulate  If equal quantities are added to equal quantities, the sums are equal. 
Subtraction Postulate  If equal quantities are subtracted from equal quantities, the differences are equal. 
Multiplication Postulate  If equal quantities are multiplied by equal quantities, the products are equal. (also Doubles of equal quantities are equal.) 
Division Postulate  If equal quantities are divided by equal nonzero quantities, the quotients are equal. (also Halves of equal quantities are equal.) 
Substitution Postulate  A quantity may be substituted for its equal in any expression. 
Partition Postulate  The whole is equal to the sum of its parts.
Also: Betweeness of Points: AB + BC = AC
Angle Addition Postulate: m<ABC + m<CBD = m<ABD 
Construction  Two points determine a straight line.

Construction  From a given point on (or not on) a line, one and only one perpendicular can be drawn to the line. 
Right Angles  All right angles are congruent.

Straight Angles  All straight angles are congruent.

Congruent Supplements  Supplements of the same angle, or congruent angles, are congruent. 
Congruent Complements ...
...Geometry Definitions, Postulates and Theorems
Definitions Name Complementary Angles Supplementary Angles Theorem Vertical Angles Transversal Corresponding angles Sameside interior angles Alternate interior angles Congruent triangles Similar triangles Angle bisector Segment bisector Legs of an isosceles triangle Base of an isosceles triangle Equiangular Perpendicular bisector Altitude
Definition Two angles whose measures have a sum of 90o Two angles whose measures have a sum of 180o A statement that can be proven Two angles formed by intersecting lines and facing in the opposite direction A line that intersects two lines in the same plane at different points Pairs of angles formed by two lines and a transversal that make an F pattern Pairs of angles formed by two lines and a transversal that make a C pattern Pairs of angles formed by two lines and a transversal that make a Z pattern Triangles in which corresponding parts (sides and angles) are equal in measure Triangles in which corresponding angles are equal in measure and corresponding sides are in proportion (ratios equal) A ray that begins at the vertex of an angle and divides the angle into two angles of equal measure A ray, line or segment that divides a segment into two parts of equal measure The sides of equal measure in an isosceles triangle The third side of an isosceles triangle Having angles that are all equal in measure A line that bisects a segment and is perpendicular to it A segment from...
...Adrian Zwierzchowski
2 IB
Investigation – Von Koch’s snowflake curve
In this investigation I am going to consider a limit curve named after the Swedish mathematician Niels Fabian Helge von Koch. I will try to investigate the perimeter and area of Von Koch’s curve.
[pic]
The Koch’s curve has an infinite length because each time the steps above are performed on each line segment of the figure there are four times as many line segments, the length of each being onethird the length of the segments in the previous stage.
First of all I am going to suppose c1 has a perimeter of 3 units. I will try to find the perimeter of c2, c3, c4 and c5.
c1 s1 = 1 (s – side length)
c2 s2 = 1/3
c3 s3 = 1/9
c4 s4 = 1/27
c5 s5 = 1/81
If the original line segment had length s, then after the first step each line segment has a length s · ⅓. For the second step, each segment has a length s ·(⅓)2, and so on.
Assuming a unit length for the starting straight line segment, we obtain the following figures:
iteration segment segment curve 
number length number length 
1 1 1 1.00 
2 ⅓ 4 1.33 
3 1/9 16 1.77 
4 1/27 64...
...(CPCTP) Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent
It is intended as an easy way to remember that when you have two triangles and you have proved they are congruent, then each part of one triangle (side, or angle) is congruent to the corresponding part in the other.
(SSS) Side Side Postulate
If the three sides of a triangle are congruent to the three sides of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
(SAS) Side Angle SidePostulate
If two sides and the included angle of a triangle are congruent to two sides and the included angle of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
(ASA) Angle Side Angle Postulate
If two angles and the included side of a triangle are congruent to two angles and the included side of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
(SAA OR SAA) Side Angle Angle Postulate
If two angles and a nonincluded side of a triangle are congruent to two angles and the corresponding nonincluded side of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
(HL) Hypotenuse Leg Congruence Theorem
If the hypotenuse and leg of one triangle is congruent to another triangle's hypotenuse and leg, then the triangles are congruent.
(HA) Hypotenuse Acute Congruence Theorem
If the hypotenuse and an acute angle of a right triangle is congruent to the corresponding hypotenuse and acute angle of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent....
...Another postulate of the kinetic molecular theory is that gas particles are always in motion, like the other states of matter. But they are different in that they undergo random translational movement. In solids, the particles mainly experience vibrational motion and in liquids they mainly vibrate and rotate, with some translational motion. Gas particles move rapidly in straight lines, unless acted upon by another particle or the walls of a container. This continuous contact with the container leads to our understanding of gas pressure, the number of collisions over a certain amount of area. As per the KMT, an ideal gas should travel rapidly in a random, yet constant speed. In reality, gas particles do follow the assumption lead by the KMT. In extreme cases, when factors like temperature and pressure change, gases deviate from their ideal behaviour.
The basis of the previous postulate, leads us to the next postulate that states that the speed of the gas particles varies accordingly to temperature. In a gas the particles are in ever changing kinetic energy, but when the speed is averaged, it becomes proportional to absolute temperature. As the absolute temperature of a gas increases, the particles inside the gas experience more thermal energy. This leads to more kinetic energy, causing the particles to move faster and further apart. When the absolute temperature is reduced, the thermal energy is also reduced, leading to lower...