Mary J. Slatten
University Of Mary
Patterns of Knowing and Knowledge
It is suggested that there are five patterns of knowing and knowledge in nursing. A nurse must develop and balance all of these patterns of knowledge in order to be effective. As in all of nursing, nurses refine these patterns with experience and reflection throughout his or her career.
This knowledge is interrelated, interdependent and overlapping. Nurse, as any other profession develop their own pattern of knowledge as part of their profession, nursing being a unique profession with a unique pattern of knowledge because it requires intellectual knowledge, technical skill and is considered an art (Rutty, J.E. 1998).
The first pattern of knowledge is emancipatory knowledge. This concept challenges the nurse to recognize the sometimes-subtle social and political ramifications influencing his or her practice and patient care. The nurse must first recognize that something is wrong, and then have the courage to meet the challenge to attempt to change the status quo (Chinn & Kramer, 2011).
Hegemony is the ability of a certain group or dominant class to influence or control another population or group and influence them to accept their view. The hospital environment and relationships within them can be considered hegemonic, therefore, nurses learn early in their education that is conflict is common between hierarchies within institutions. Nurses learn early in their careers that hegemony can cause disharmony in their practice (Clare, 1993).
In order to utilize this practice or pattern of knowing the nurse must question not only what is wrong with the picture but also who is benefiting from the status quo. It is assumed that the disadvantaged population or individual is not free to choose from the options that more advantage persons would be able to choose. The nurse must ask critical questions such as what is wrong with this picture and who is benefiting by keeping the status quo (Chinn & Kramer, 2011).
Ethical knowledge in nursing has to do with doing no harm and doing what is right. Ethics asks what is right and who is responsible? Nurses are challenges daily in clarifying their values and exploring their alternatives when ethical dilemma’s occur in practice. Various techniques that can be utilized for this process, however the nurse must be aware that this process is likely to be emotionally charged, as it will challenge his or her deeply held values and belief system.
The nurse must also explore other avenues of resolution to the problem from the viewpoint of facts and logic. The use of an ethical decision tree is often useful when making an ethical decision, as it add clarity to the situation.
Ethical knowledge in nursing operates within fundamental principal and codes. These include such principles of autonomy and benevolence. These are guides to our practice of what the right thing to do (Chinn & Kramer, 2011).
Griepp’s model of ethical decision making suggests that the nurse has personal belief systems and values however through education and knowledge development has the ability to change his or her beliefs or values. The nurse has the responsibility to always be aware of outside influences on his or her decision-making and carry out right behavior and knowledge (Griepp, 1992).
Ethical and Moral Comportment is a term that refers to how nurses or individual behaves or acts morally relative to what they know ethically. This requires the nurse to integrate all patterns of knowledge into the decision-making process. Ethics being the knowledge of what is right, morality being the behavior or heart of what is right and is based on values. An individual has moral integrity when they behave in a manner that is consistent with their ethics. When nurses are unable or unwilling to maintain moral integrity they get moral distress.
There are four types common ethical...