Kingdom Animalia

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Rizal Technological University
Investigatory Study
(Kingdom Animalia)

Written by: Rodette Joyce Laurio
Submitted to :

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Introduction

In biology, kingdom is a taxonomic rank, which is either the highest rank or in the more recent three-domain system, the rank below domain. Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla (in zoology) or divisions in botany.

When Carl Linnaeus introduced the rank-based system of nomenclature into biology, the highest rank was given the name "kingdom" and was followed by four other main or principal ranks.Later two further main ranks were introduced, making the sequence kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus and species. In the 1960s a rank was introduced above kingdom, namely domain (or empire), so that kingdom is no longer the highest rank.

Prefixes can be added to subkingdom and infrakingdom are the two ranks immediately below kingdom. Superkingdom may be considered as an equivalent of domain or empire or as an independent rank between kingdom and domain or subdomain. In some classification systems the additional rank branch can be inserted between subkingdom and infrakingdom . Because of its position, branch can be considered as a minor rank of the kingdom group even if it is not etymologically derived from it.

So,as far as we know what are the different branches that composed of this kingdom,we do understand their behavioral traits and others.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS:

INTRODUCTION**************************************************************** 1
SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION*************************************************** 3
AN INCREASING NUMBER OF KINGDOMS: THREE KINGDOMS********************* 3
KINGDOM ANIMALIA: ETYMOLOGY, CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURES******** 4
SEXUAL LIFE OF ANIMALS: HOW DO THEY FORM?******************************** 4
FOOD SOURCING: WHAT DO THEY EAT?****************************************** 5
THE LONG JOURNEY: FOSSIL RECORD******************************************** 5
ANIMAL INDEX****************************************************************6 * FISH***************************************************************6 * AMPHIBIANS*******************************************************7 * REPTILES**********************************************************7 * MAMMALS*********************************************************8 * PRIMATES*********************************************************8 * RODENTS**********************************************************8 * MARSUPIALS******************************************************8 INDEX*************************************************************************9

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System of Classification

Historically, the number of kingdoms in widely accepted classifications has grown from two to six. However, phylogenetic research from about 2000 onwards does not support any of the traditional systems.

An initial dichotomy: Two kingdoms
The classification of living things into animals and plants is an ancient one. Aristotle classified animal species in his work The History of Animals, and his pupil Theophrastus wrote a parallel work on plants. Carolus Linnaeus laid the foundations for modern biological nomenclature, now regulated by the Nomenclature Codes. He distinguished two kingdoms of living things: Regnum Animale ('animal kingdom') for animals and Regnum Vegetabile ('vegetable kingdom') for plants. (Linnaeus also included minerals, placing them in a third kingdom, Regnum Lapideum.) Linnaeus divided each kingdom into classes, later grouped into phyla for animals and divisions for plants.

Regnum Vegetabile
Life

Regnum Animalia

An increasing number of kingdoms:
Three kingdoms

In 1674, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, often called the "father of microscopy", sent the Royal Society of London a copy of his first observations of microscopic single-celled organisms. Until then the existence of such microscopic organisms...
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