The word comes from the Greek words kinesis (movement) and kinein (to move). Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms. Applications of kinesiology to human health include: biomechanics and orthopedics, strength & conditioning, sport psychology, rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as sport and exercise. Kinesiology is the study of human movement, performance, and function by applying the sciences of biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, psychology, and neuroscience. Applications of kinesiology in human health include physical education teacher, the rehabilitation professions, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as applications in the sport and exercise industries. Kinesiology is associated with the assessment of movement, performance, and function; and the rehabilitation, prevention, and management of disorders to maintain, rehabilitate, and enhance movement, performance, and function in the areas of sport, recreation, work, exercise, and general activities of daily living. Major Divisions of the Human Body
The human body can be divided into two major sections;
1. The Axial Body
2. The Appendicular Body
The axial body is the central core axis of the body and contains the following body parts; Head
The appendicular body is made up of appendages that are added onto the axial body. The appendicular body can be divided into the right and left upper extremities and the right and left lower extremities. An upper extremity contains the following body parts;
Shoulder girdle (the scapula and clavicle)
A lower extremity contains the following body parts;
In the following diagram the bones of axial and appendicular skeleton are shown.
Although the human body can assume an infinite number of positions, one position is used as the reference position for mapping the body. This position is used to name the location of body parts, structures, and points on the body and is called anatomical position. In anatomical position the person is standing erect, facing forward, and the fingers and thumbs extended.
Whenever we want to describe the location of a structure of the human body or the location of a specific point on the human body, we always do so in reference to anatomic position. Describing a location on the human body involves the use of specific directional terms that that describe the location of one structure or point on the body relative to another structure or point on the body. Anterior/Posterior
Anterior means farther to the front and Posterior means farther to the back.eg The sternum is anterior to the spine. The spine is posterior to the sternum. The term ventral/dorsal are often used synonymously with anterior/posterior. Ventral means anterior. Dorsal means posterior. Medial/Lateral
Medial means closer to an imaginary line that divides the body into left and right halves. Lateral means farther from an imaginary line that divides the body into left and right halves.eg The little finger is medial to the thumb. The thumb is lateral to the little finger. In the forearm and the hand, the terms ulnar/radial can be used instead of medial/lateral. Ulnar means closer to the ulna, which is more medial. Radial means closer to the radius, which is more lateral. Superior/Inferior and Proximal/Distal
Superior means above. Inferior means below. The terms superior/inferior are used for the axial body parts only.eg The head is superior to the trunk. The trunk is inferior to the head. Proximal means closer to the axial body. Distal means farther from the axial body.eg The arm is proximal to the forearm. The forearm is distal to the arm. The terms proximal/distal are used for the appendicular body parts...
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