Key Terms Mis Information Technology Chapter 5

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Chapter 5 Key Terms

Ajax Development technique for creating interactive Web applications capable of updating the user interface without reloading the entire browser page.

application software package A set of prewritten, precoded application software programs that are commercially available for sale or lease.

autonomic computing Effort to develop systems that can manage themselves without user intervention.

blade server Entire computer that fits on a single, thin card (or blade) and that is plugged into a single chassis to save space, power and complexity.

client The user point-of-entry for the required function in client/server computing. Normally a desktop computer, workstation, or laptop computer.

client/server computing A model for computing that splits processing between clients and servers on a network, assigning functions to the machine most able to perform the function.

cloud computing Web-based applications that are stored on remote servers and accessed via the "cloud' of the Internet using a standard Web browser.

Extensible Markup Language) XML General-purpose language that describes the structure of a document and supports links to multiple documents, allowing data to be manipulated by the computer. Used for both Web and non-Web applications.

grid computing Applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem.

hypertext markup language (HTML) Page description language for creating Web pages and other hypermedia documents.

Java Programming language that can deliver only the software functionality needed for a particular task, such as a small applet downloaded from a network; can run on any computer and operating system.

legacy system A system that has been in existence for a long time and that continues to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning it.

Linux Reliable and compactly designed operating system that is an offshoot of UNIX and that can run on many different hardware platforms and is available free or at very low cost. Used as alternative to UNIX and Windows NT.

mainframe Largest category of computer, used for major business processing.

mashups Composite software applications that depend on high-speed networks, universal communication standards, and open-source code.

minicomputer Middle-range computer used in systems for universities, factories, or research laboratories.

Moore's Law Assertion that the number of components on a chip doubles each year

multicore processor Integrated circuit to which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks.

multitiered (N-tier) client/server architecture Client/server network which the work of the entire network is balanced over several different levels of servers.

nanotechnology Technology that builds structures and processes based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.

netbook Small low-cost, lightweight subnotebook optimized for wireless communication and Internet access.

on-demand computing Firms off-loading peak demand for computing power to remote, large-scale data processing centers, investing just enough to handle average processing loads and paying for only as much additional computing power as the market demands. Also called utility computing.

open-source software Software that provides free access to its program code, allowing users to modify the program code to make improvements or fix errors.

operating system Software that manages the resources and activities of the computer.

outsourcing The practice of contracting computer center operations, telecommunications networks, or applications development to external vendors.

SaaS (Software as a Service) Services for delivering and providing access to software remotely as a Web-based service.

scalability The ability of a computer, product, or...
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