Keating's Speech Analysis Table Format

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Speaker |Purpose |Context |Themes |Structure |Quotes + Techniques |Reception | | Keating

“Funeral Service of the Unknown Australian Soldier”
1993

- Australia

|Primary purpose to commemorate & reflect on the selfless sacrifice made by the thousands of unknown Australian soldiers who had been killed in war • Keating doesn’t look to glorify war, but rather give thanks for the actions of these Australian soldiers who gallantly fought to protect our lands and way of life • Calls us to celebrate the qualities of the Unknown Soldier and learn to “endure hardship and to stick together” • Bringing country together in remembrance (uniting)- aim of creating a national identity based on qualities of Aus’n life - ‘mateship’ ‘courage’, resilience, self belief and the need to ‘stick together’ • Acknowledge wide background of Aust’ns

• This speech is one of the greatest speeches in Australia because it commemorates the great contributions of Australians and denounces war.

Delivered speech on 11, 1993 at the Aus’n War Memorial, Canberra. 11 Nov – remembrance day – significant as his speech is based around it - in memory of all those who died or suffered in all wars and armed conflicts.

Audience – multi-cultural Aus, those who fought against Aus/allies in previous wars – RSL members, ex-soldiers, broadcasted speech – on TV.

Emotive speech which didn’t isolate any one in society but united everyone.

|P.M. of Aus
• Speech/Eulogy not written by Keating but by Don Watson, but he makes it his through the way he delivers it. • 75 years after WW1
• Funeral ceremony was to be officially recognised as a poignant and powerful symbol of All Australians who have died in war • Debate/obsession with national identity
• Echoes Lincoln’s Gettysburg address about commemorating the war dead |Honour war dead and give thanks for their great sacrifice
• Need to unify country and develop a national identity

Honour and Resemblance
• Looked to honour & remember those that sacrificed their lives in WW1 • Unknown soldier represents all Australians who have served and died in past conflicts and possible future conflicts • Keating calls all Australians to always remember and give thanks to the selfless sacrifice of those who have served in war to protect our freedom and way of life • Speech generates honour associated with serving ones country

Patriotism
• Speech is memorable for the patriotic and nationalistic chord it struck with audience • Generated pride through the pop & found new national identity • New Australian spirit gravitated around the core values of ‘mateship’ ‘courage’, resilience, self belief and the need to ‘stick together’ which had been brought to life by the unknown solider. • Inclusive language and memorable quote of “He is all of them. And he is one of us” struck a patriotic chord, unifying all Australians in honouring and giving thanks for the sacrifice of fallen heroes who had fought to protect our lands & way of life.

War and Peace
• Praises the sacrifice of the Unknown Soldier, who is a representative of all Australian’s who have lost their lives in war – seen through the technique of statistics which emphasise this. • Honours sacrifice, yet doesn’t condone war - insists that peace is the ideal situation for Australia • “The unknown Australian soldier is not interred here to glorify war over peace” but instead “honours the memory of all those men and women who laid down their lives for Australia” • Keating doesn’t glorify war- prefers to emphasise the brutal realities of war being a “waste of human life” caused by “political incompetence” • Leaves audience in no doubt that peace is better than war

Main point: from war we learn the value of ordinary people. We realise they are extraordinary. “Out of war came a lesson…a lesson about ordinary people – and the lesson was that they were not ordinary.” Makes the point that soldiers,...
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