The Hashemite University
Faculty of Nursing
Mohammed Ahmad Almaani, RN, BSc
Foundations of Nursing Theories
Dr. Jamila Abuidhail, RN, PhD
December 23, 2012
Application of Leininger’s Transcultural Care Theory
The theory of cultural care diversity and universality gives holistic and comprehensive framework for understanding how politics, religion, family life, and other aspects of social structure and world view, need to be considered in planning care for patients (Leininger, 1998). The aim of the paper is to represent my understanding to the cultural care theory application by using concepts and assumptions are mentioned, and then it applied to a case study.
Leininger’s Transcultural Theory:
The central concept of Leininger’s theory is human care in diverse or similar context. Leininger states that care is a universal phenomenon but the expression of care differs from culture to culture, Leininger also stresses understanding of the individual, families, groups and institutions from the broad dimension of social structure, world view, language and environmental context. These components were presented in the symbolic conceptual of the sunrise model. The sunrise model (fig 1) provides simple clear way of conducting cultural care for diverse cultural clients. According to Leininger, care and culture are the missing components of other theories, so she defined these concepts. Leininger has built her theory on the premise that peoples form each culture relates their perceptions of care to their general health beliefs and practices (Leininger, 1991).
The metaparadigm for Leininger theory, the major concepts and assumptions and sunrise model listed below:
Leininger recognized care as the essential, central and critical component of her theory. Care is important for the development, heath, maintenance and survival of human being in all world cultures. Care activity includes assistive, supportive or facilitative action towards or for another individuals or groups. All these can improve human conditions and life way (Leininger, 1991, 1995, 1998). Culture.
Culture is the learned, shared and transmitted values, beliefs, norms and life way practices of particular group that guide thinking, decisions and actions (Leininger, 1991, 1995, 1998). Leininger has identified three nursing care modes which are sued to guide nursing decisions and actions to achieve culturally congruent care. These modes are/or include:
1- Cultural care preservation /or maintenance refers to those culturally based assistive, facilitative or enabling phenomena that help individuals to preserve favorable health (Leinnger, 1991). 2- Cultural care accommodation /or negotiation refers to those culturally based assistive, facilitative or enabling actions that reflect ways to adapt, negotiate or adjust to clients health and care life style (Leininger, 1991). 3- Cultural care repatterning /or restructuring refers to change health or life pattern of individuals by reconstruction of designs (Leininger, 1991, 1998).
Leininger has viewed health, as it is more than absence of disease, health refers to beliefs, values and action patterns that are culturally known and used to preserve and maintain personal or group well being (Leininger, 1991, 1995, 1998). B. Environment
Environment refers to the total contextual aspects in which individuals and cultural groups live. These aspects include physical, ecological, social and world view features. Environment in Leininger’s theory has importance, since it influences health and care patterns of individuals and cultural groups (Leininger, 1991, 1995, 1998). C. Nursing
Although nursing was not considered as one of the major paradigm of...