Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture. What is Islam?
* The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning "peace" and "submission.“ * Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. * The same Arabic root word gives us "Salaam alaykum," ("Peace be with you"), the universal Muslim greeting. Geographical
* The Moslem faith flourished in the countries of Southern Asia and North Africa. * Other important communities include Zanzibar, Madagascar and China. * In the 20th century mobility, Islam was brought throughout the world as far as Sydney and South shields. * The spread of Islam has been frequently associated with military conquest, racial movements and in some cases with the consequent displacement of established populations. * The most important were the Arab expansion northwards and westwards out of the Arabian peninsula, and the drive of the Turkish and Mongol groups South, Southeast and Southwest of Central Asia.
The islamic world
* The countries into which Islam first expanded were already rich in building tradition and the important techniques of exploitation of natural resources for building work and trade in building materials had long been established. * Brick making and pise’ walling was almost universal in the alluvial plains * Cooling effect of structures with very heavy walls and high rooms has been widely exploited. * Unprotected circulation are common.
* A.D.622 – the year of the Hijrah, when Mohammed moved from Mecca to Medina. * Immediately after his death in 632 – the concerted efforts of the Arabian tibes carried death as conquerors into Central asia and westward towards the Atlantic. Social
* The Arab group which were the spearhead of advanced Islam ,were essentially tribal, and in consequence the behavior patterns and attributes of emergent Islamic societies were based on traditions of the desert. * Public life was reserved for men.
* Women play a secondary role, to be part of the household – the harem. In public, she is protected by the anonymity of the veil. * Equality was only granted to the Romadic groups.
* “peoples of the book” – Jews and Christians
* Freedom of worship and interval government.
* Islam is the last of the three great religions of the middle east. * Its essence is contained in a simple sentence, which is both the profession of faith and the credo of its adherents * There is only one God and his prophet Mohammed.
* Philosophy of life and government.
* The Koran – is regarded as the revelation through the medium of the prophet Mohammed. * The Hadith – is the collection of his sayings or injunctions and is of lesser weight. * The law – is extracted from the prophet’s instructions, from tradition and sample. * An acceptance of the transitory nature of earthly life; personal humility; an abhorrence of images worship. * The important architectural endeavor is normally expended on buildings having a direct social or community purpose, including worships; that decorations tends toward the abstract, using geometric, calligraphic and plant motifs , with a preference for a uniform field of decoration rather than a focal element; and that a basic conservatism discouraged innovations and favoured established forms
* Masjid (Persia, India) – mosque or a place of worship. * Jami – mosque, principal place of worship, or use of the building for Friday prayers * Mesjid (Turkey) – small prayer house
* Madrassah (Egypt)
* Medrese (Turkey) – religious college and mosque.
* Saray; Serai – palace
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