1.1 INTRODUCTION TO INVESTMENT The money one earns is partly spent and the rest is saved for meeting future expenses, instead of keeping savings idle one may like to use savings in order to get returns on it in the future, this is called as investment. In an economic sense, an investment is the purchase of goods that are not consumed today but are used in the future to create wealth. In finance, an investment is a monetary asset purchased with the idea that the asset will provide income in the future or appreciate and be sold at a higher price. Mere earning will not help one to secure the future, so it becomes important to invest. One of the important reasons why one needs to invest wisely is to meet the cost of Inflation. Inflation is the rate at which the cost of living increases. The cost of living is simply what it costs to buy the goods and services you need to live. Inflation causes money to lose value because it will not buy the same amount of a good or a service in the future as it does now or did in the past. The sooner one starts investing the better. By investing early one allow one’s investments more time to grow, whereby the concept of compounding increases one’s income, by accumulating the principal and the interest or dividend earned on it, year after year. The dictionary meaning of investment is to commit money in order to earn a financial return or to make use of the money for future benefits or advantages. People commit money to investments with expectations to increase their future wealth by investing money to spend in future years. For example, if you invest Rs. 1000 today and earn 10% over the next year, you will have Rs.1100 one year from today. An investment can be described as perfect if it satisfies all the needs of all investors. So, the starting point in searching for the perfect investment would be to examine investor needs. If all those needs are met by the investment, then that investment can be termed the perfect investment. Most investors and advisors spend a great deal of time understanding the merits of
the thousands of investments available in India. Little time, however, is spent understanding the needs of the investor and ensuring that the most appropriate investments are selected for him. Before making any investment, one must ensure to: Obtain written documents explaining the investment Read and understand such documents Verify the legitimacy of the investment Find out the costs and benefits associated with the investment Assess the risk-return profile of the investment Know the liquidity and safety aspects of the investment Ascertain if it is appropriate for your specific goals Compare these details with other investment opportunities available Examine if it fits in with other investments you are considering or you have already made Deal only through an authorized intermediary Seek all clarifications about the intermediary and the investment Explore the options available to you if something were to go wrong, and then, if satisfied, make the investment.
1.2 INVESTMENT NEEDS OF AN INVESTOR Investing money is a stepping stone to manage spending habits and prepare for the future expenses. Most people recognize the need to put their money away for events or circumstances that may occur in future. People invest money to manage their personal finances some of them invest to plan for retirement, while others invest to accumulate wealth. Each one has a different need and each of them expect something from their money in future. By and large, most investors have eight common needs from their investments: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Security of original capital Wealth accumulation Tax Advantages Life cover Income
1.3 TYPES OF INVESTMENT AVENUES
Fi gure 1.1: Various investment alternatives Source: Investment analysis and portfolio management Author: Prasanna Chandra
Figure 1.1 shows various investment alternatives which are explained below....