Running Head: INTELLIGENCE DEFINITION AND MEASUREMENT
Intelligence Definition and Measurement
PSYCH 525 Measurements and Statistics
February 04, 2013
Christie Seiler, Ph.D.
Intelligence Definition and Measurement
Defining and measuring intelligence remains just as controversial as it was when the first very first intelligence test was developed and administered. Over the years, various instruments have been developed, but intelligence ultimately remains undefined. In this paper, the writer will critique the major definitions of intelligence and determine the most appropriate definition for each intelligence and achievement instrument. The writer will consider the ethical implications of utilizing intelligence and achievement tests in educational settings. Lastly, the writer will compare and contrast the selected achievement and intelligence measurements. Intelligence Definitions
The Merriam -Webster online dictionary defines intelligence as: (1). the ability to learn or understand to deal with new trying situations, (2). the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (tests). Cohen and Swerdlik (2010), notes that intelligence manifest itself in the following abilities: acquiring and using knowledge, logically reasoning skills, effective planning, perception, judgment making, problem solving attention, visualizing concepts, intuition, and coping, adjusting, and dealing with situations. However, theses abilities do not absolutely define intelligence, instead, they provide an outline of characteristics in which intelligence can be measured.
Francis Galton, Alfred Binet, David Wechsler, and Jean Piaget are considered the most influential contributors in developing, defining and understanding intelligence. Galton is known for making the first serious attempt to develop measures which would assess a person’s intelligence. Galton proposed the intelligence was merely a combination of the right genes. He believed that there was a correlation between intelligence and physical development of the brain and body.
Wechsler defined intelligence as “the aggregated or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment” (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, p. 280). He further reasoned that each that no two individuals share the same intelligence, thus, intellectual abilities should be uniquely measured. Unlike the others, Piaget does not actually define or explain what intelligence is; rather he explains how it is developed (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). Piaget proposed that intelligence starts developing in early childhood. He believed during this stage, children learned essential cognitive skills to assist in adaptation. Binet developed an important intelligence measure known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. However, he did not define intelligence. Instead, he outlined components of intelligence, such as “reasoning, judgment, memory and abstraction.” (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, p. 280). Intelligence and Achievement Measures
The two intelligence measures selected for evaluation are the Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales – Fifth Edition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition. The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale, fifth Edition is also referred to as the SB5. There have been various editions over the years, but this assessment has undeniably become known as the standard for intelligence measurement. The assessment was originally developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. The SB5 is considered an assessment for all ages. The test comprehensively measures five factors of cognitive ability: (1) fluid reasoning, (2) knowledge, (3) quantitative processing, (4) visual-spatial processing, and (5) working memory.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition is also referred to as the WAIS. The test is designed to measure...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document