International Relations between Indonesia, Middle East, and OIC

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CHAPTER II
CONTENT
International Relation between Indonesia, Middle East and OIC Indonesia, Middle-East, and OIC
The Middle East is a region that spans southwestern Asia and Northeastern Africa. It has no clear boundaries, often used as synonym of Near East. The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, and throughout its history the Middle East has been a major centre of world affairs. The Middle East is also the historical origin of the three of the world’s major monotheistic religions, which are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Many countries of which located around the Persian Gulf have large quantities of crude oil. Middle Eastern economies range from nations being very poor (such as Gaza and Yemen) to extremely wealthy nations (such as UAE and Saudi Arabia). Overall, as of 2007, according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth. According to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database of April 2008, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2007 were Turkey ($ 663,419,000,000), Saudi Arabia ($ 376,029,000,000) and Iran ($ 294,089,000,000), in terms of Nominal GDP. Turkey ($ 887,964,000,000), Iran ($ 752,967,000,000) and Saudi Arabia ($ 564,561,000,000) had the largest economies in terms of GDP-PPP. When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the three highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($80,900), Kuwait ($39,300) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) ($37,300). The lowest-ranking country in the Middle East in terms of per capita income (PPP) is the autonomous Palestinian Authority of Gaza and the West Bank ($1,100). The economic structure of Middle Eastern nations are different in the sense that while some nations are heavily dependent on export of only oil and oil-related products (such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait), others have a highly diverse economic base (such as Turkey and Egypt). Industries of the Middle Eastern region include oil and oil-related products, agriculture, cotton, cattle, dairy, textiles, leather products, surgical instruments, defence equipment (guns, ammunition, tanks, submarines, fighter jets, UAVs, and missiles). Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain. Sebagai negara dengan penduduk beragama Islam terbesar di dunia, nampaknya Indonesia perlu terus meningkatkan hubungan kerjasama dengan negara-negara di Timur Tengah. Negara-negara di kawasan teluk ini bagi masyarakat Indonesia sudah tidak asing lagi. Setiap tahun dua ratusan ribu jemaah Indonesia pergi ke Mekkah dan Madinah untuk menunaikan ibadah haji di tanah suci. Menurut Suhartono Ronggodirdjo, pengamat Hubungan Internasional, ada empat alasan mengapa wilayah Timur Tengah begitu familiar dan penting bagi masyarakat Indonesia. 1.Timur Tengah merupakan wilayah tempat turunnya agama-agama samawi. 2.Timur Tengah adalah wilayah kaya minyak sehingga secara ekonomis lebih kuat dan kaya dari Indonesia 3.Orang-orang kaya di Timur Tengah perlu tenaga kerja nonformal terutama pembantu rumah tangga dari Indonesia 4.Timur Tengah menarik perhatian karena merupakan wilayah konflik Palestina-Israel. Dengan empat faktor di atas, sepertinya Indonesia perlu terus meningkatkan kerjasama dengan negara-negara dikawasan ini, tidak hanya dalam bidang politik, tetapi juga bidang ekonomi, sosial dan budaya. Keempat alasan diatas perlu dijadikan pijakan oleh bangsa Indonesia dalam membangun hubungan diplomatik dengan negara-negara Timur Tengah untuk kemaslahatan bersama diantara dua hala. Indonesia sees investment from the Middle East as a priority since the investment will bring benefits for both sides. Government (central and local) together with the private sectors are actively promoting investment opportunities to Middle East countries. As shown in Doing Business 2009, Indonesia has reduced drastically the time to start up a new company. In addition, the government has established one stop...
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