International Business- MBU 356
The Catholic University of America (CUA)
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that was established on October 24, 1945 following World War II (1939-1945), and after its predecessor The League of Nations (LN). The League of Nations was a result of the First World War, and was the first international organization whose principal mission was world peace. The League of Nations failed to reach its goals of preventing wars through collective security and disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration, which prompted the creation of the UN. The intent of the UN is to promote dialogue amongst countries in efforts of stopping and preventing wars. Additionally, the United Nations aim is world peace through the facilitation of cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, and human rights (www.newworldencyclopedia.org, 2012).
In 1939 the term “United Nations” was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt as a way to describe allied countries. It was not until three years later on 1 January 1942 when 26 governments signed the Atlantic Charter, which was a pledge to continue the war effort. The UN conference was held April 25, 1945 in San Francisco which was attended by 50 participating governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in the creation of the United Nations Charter. Fifty-one nations and the Security Council participated in the first UN General Assembly in January 1946 at the Methodist Central Hall Westminster located in London. The Security Council was the decision making body within the UN with the ability to enforce decisions (www.newworldencyclopedia.org, 2012). Compiled of five permanent members (P5) with veto power: United States, Russia, The United Kingdom, France, and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The United Nations charter details the guidelines that every country’s participating government must abide by (www.wisegeek.com, 2012). From 1946 to 1952 the United Nations was based in Lake Success, New York at the Sperry Gyroscope Corporation headquarters; after 1952 the UN headquarters relocated to Manhattan. The United Nations main goal is world peace; however, the international organization also campaigns for political and economic issues. They help fight against drug trafficking and terrorist attacks (www.wisegeeek.com, 2012). There have been campaigns to assist refugees and to provide vital food production and humanitarian aid to third world countries. The war against AIDS and world-wide disarmament are two of the top priorities for the UN and its security council. When the United Nations was founded there were 51 nations lead by the allied powers after World War II. As of today, there are 192 participating nations that still use the same structure of the original 51 nations. The UN has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. The 192 UN nations participate in recurring meetings where they discuss the world’s most urgent problems at the time. Each nation gets one vote on the issue at hand. There are also debates amongst nations surrounding security problems throughout the world. There are six main divisions within the United Nations: 1. The General Assembly- The main deliberative assembly
2. The Security Council- Makes resolution decisions for peace and security 3. The Economic and Social Council- Assist with promotion of international economic and social cooperation and development 4. The Trustee Council- Currently inactive
5. The Secretariat- Provides studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN 6. The International Court of Justice- The primary judicial entity From the beginning, there has been controversy and criticism surrounded the United Nations. Within the United States, anti UN groups such...