International Business Globalization

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Q-1Explain how trade lowers the costs of making computer peripherals such as mice and keyboards. ANSW.It is amazing to think that trade helps to lower the costs of a product. As we saw in the previous question, if the United States were to build a product entirely domestically, the retail price would not be feasible to most consumers. With trading in place it allows for economies of scale. The technology can be developed in one country, the ergonomics in another country, the production in another country, and the assembly in yet another country. The shipping costs are much less than it would be to perform these tasks in one country. This is called absolute advantage, where someone is great at one thing. With this in mind you will get a product that has the best resources available at the lowest cost, which is comparative advantage. Finally, specialization is where everyone is doing what they do best and pulling their resources together to make one incredible product.

Q-2.Use the theory of comparative advantage to explain the way in which Logitech has configured its global operations. Why does the company manufacture in China and Taiwan, undertake basic R&D in California and Switzerland, design products in Ireland, and coordinate marketing and operations from California? ANSW.Logitech is very brilliant when it comes to comparative advantage. It does basic R&D work in Switzerland with 200 employees, its headquarters are in Fremont, California with 450 employees as well as some R&D, the ergonomic designs are developed in Ireland, and the products are manufactured in Taiwan and China. The comparative advantage is that it is the most cost effective to break up the business in many different countries that specialize in a certain job.

Q-3.Who creates more value for Logitech, the 650 people it employs in Fremont and Switzerland, or the 4,000 employees at its Chinese factory? What are the implications of this observation for the argument that free trade is beneficial? ANSW.The 650 employees in Fremont, California and Switzerland create more value for Logitech. It is where all of the R&D and designs are developed. The 4,000 employees of China add $3 to the Wanda product, which is almost nothing in comparison to the remaining $37. Free trade is beneficial because labour costs can be brought way down.

O-4Why do you think the company decided to shift its corporate headquarters from Switzerland to Fremont? ANSW.America specializes in R&D. The headquarters were moved because of the company’s global marketing, finance, and logistics operations. That is what Americans do best.

O-5To what extent can Porter’s diamond help explain the choice of Taiwan as a major manufacturing site for Logitech? ANSWThere are four parts to Porter’s diamond: (1) factor of endowments, which is a nation’s position in factors of production such as skilled labor or the infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry; (2) demand conditions, which is the nature of home demand for the industry’s product or service; (3) relating and supporting industries, which is the presence or absence of supplier industries and related industries that are internationally competitive; (4) firm strategy, structure, and rivalry, which are the conditions governing how companies are created, organized, and managed and the nature of domestic rivalry. Taiwan’s factor of endowments was that it had a science-based Industrial Park in Hsinchu. The demand conditions were that the Taiwanese were already trained to deal with technology. The relating and supporting industries were that Taiwan was the best as building technology as the lowest cost. The firm strategy, structure, and rivalry were that Taiwan had no domestic rivalry; they provided the lowest cost.

Q-6Why do you think China is now a favored location for so much high technology manufacturing activity? How will China’s increasing involvement in global trade help that country? How will it help...
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