N ucor
P reparation Questions
1. What have been the sources of Nucor’s competitive advantage so far (namely, up until 1986)? Do you think “business as usual” is likely to continue generating the same profits for Nucor? Why?
2. What are the technological risks associated with thin-slab casting? (What could go wrong and how bad would it be? You may find the spreadsheet posted with these preparation questions helpful here.)

3. What are the market risks associated with thin-slab casting? (What could go wrong and how bad would it be? You may also find the spreadsheet useful here.)

4. What are the financial risks associated with thin-slab casting? (What could go wrong and how bad would it be? Use the financial information in the case for guidance.)

5. If thin-slab casting works, do you think it is likely to generate a sustainable competitive advantage for Nucor?

6. Should Nucor commit to thin-slab casting?

C ase Analysis Question
M ake a recom m endation r egarding w hether Nucor should go forward with the t hin - slab casting project. In developing your recom m endation, you should a ddress s everal qu estions .
1 . F irst, what have been the foundations of Nucor’s com petitive advantage o ver the past decade? W h ich o f those (if any) are likely to help them s ucceed in the thin - slab casting venture?

2 . S econd, do you think that thin - slab casting will be a source of s ustainable com petitive advantage? In answering this, you m ust c onsider two things.

a . O ne, do you think thin - slab casting will be a profitable i nvestment? There is a spreadsheet available for download along w ith this project that will help you m ake a n a ss essm ent. This s preadsheet calculates the internal rate of return (IRR) of the new p roject using cash flow projections. The projections are based on a ssum ptions detailed in the notes below the m ain spr eadsheet. O nce you download t he spreadsheet, you can exp erim ent with d ifferent values that...

...INTERNALRATE OF RETURN
Many companies wants to have a return on their investment in a few years and begin to evaluate their projects optimistically calculating an internalrate of real return not yielding results in the end. This does not end up being expected by the companies; According to the article the authors John C. Kelleher and Justin J. MacCormack . They suggest that there is a tendency to a risky behavior, Companies started to run the risk of creating unrealistic numbers for themselves and shareholder expectations, which it could confuse communications with investors and inflating managerial rewards.
This confronts us with a real and serious problem when it comes to investing in projects because later we can not generate the expected return and risk of failure in the project, the IRR can generate two different values for the same project when future cash flows switch from negative to positive (or positive to negative). In addition, since the IRR is expressed as a percentage, and This can make small projects appear more attractive than large , although large projects with lower IRR may be more attractive as NPV of smaller projects with IRR .
The management of the IRR must be just when the project generates no interim cash flows - or when those interim cash flows really can be invested in real IRR otherwise would not be realistically analyzing...

...InternalRate of Return
Meaning of Capital Budgeting
Capital budgeting can be defined as the process
of analyzing, evaluating, and deciding whether
resources should be allocated to a project or
not.
Capital budgeting addresses the issue of
strategic long-term investment decisions.
Process of capital budgeting ensure optimal
allocation of resources and helps management
work towards the goal of shareholder wealth
maximization.
Why Capital Budgeting is so Important?
Involve massive investment of resources
Are not easily reversible
Have long-term implications for the firm
Involve uncertainty and risk for the firm
Capital Budget Techniques
Net PresentValue
Discounted
BenefitCost/Profitability
Index Ratio
IRR
Capital Budget
Techniques
Accounting Rate
of Return
Non Discounted
Payback
Period
InternalRate of Return
The rate at which the net present value of cash
flows of a project is zero, I.e., the rate at which
the present value of cash inflows equals initial
investment
Project’s promised rate of return given initial
investment and cash flows.
Consistent with wealth maximization
Accept a project if IRR ≥ Cost of Capital
Question
The management is considering to acquire an
equipment costing $1,00,000 . It is expected...

...wishes to evaluate three prospective investments: X, Y, and Z. Currently, the firm earns 12% on its investments, which have a risk index of 6%. The expected return and expected risk of the investments are as follows:
|Investment |Expected return |Expected risk |
| | |index |
|X |14% |7% |
|y |12 |8 |
|z |10 |9 |
a. If Sharon were risk-indifferent, which investments would she select? Explain why.
b. If she were risk-averse, which investments would she select? Why?
c. If she were risk-seeking, which investments would she select? Why?
d. Given the traditional risk preference behavior exhibited by financial managers, which investment would be preferred? Why?
2.
Risk analysis Solar Designs is considering an investment in an expanded product line. Two possible types of expansion are being considered. After investigating the possible outcomes, the company made the estimates shown in the following table:
| |Expansion A |Expansion B |
|Initial investment |$12,000 |$12,000 |
|Annual rate of return | |
|Pessimistic |16%...

...000 | |
6 | 500,000 | |
7 | 500,000 | 5,650,000 |
a. Compute the NPV and IRR for the above two projects, assuming a 13% required rate of return.
b. Discuss the ranking conflict.
c. What decision should be made regarding these two projects?
Answer:
a. NPV of A = $211,305 NPV of B = $401,592.64
IRR of A = 16.33% IRR of B = 15.99%
b. The later cash flow of B causes its lower IRR even though it has the higher NPV.
c. B should be accepted because it is the mutually exclusive project with the highest positive NPV.
Keywords: NPV, IRR
AACSB: Analytic skil
4) Tangshan Mining Company must choose its optimal capital structure. Currently, the firm has a 40 percent debt ratio and the firm expects to generate a dividend next year of $4.89 per share and dividends are grow at a constant rate of 5 percent for the foreseeable future. Stockholders currently require a 10.89 percent return on their investment. Tangshan Mining is considering changing its capital structure if it would benefit shareholders. The firm estimates that if it increases the debt ratio to 50 percent, it will increase its expected dividend to $5.24 per share. Because of the additional leverage, dividend growth is expected to increase to 6 percent and this growth will be sustained indefinitely. However, because of the added risk, the required return demanded by stockholders will increase to 11.34 percent....

...InternalRate of ReturnInternalRate of Return (IRR)
Calculation of the true interest yield expected from an investment. Explanation of InternalRate of Return. What is InternalRate of Return? Definition The InternalRate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate that delivers a net present value of zero for a series of future cash flows. It is an Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) approach to valuation and investing. As is Net Present Value (NPV). IRR and NPV are widely used to decide which investments should be undertaken, and which investments not to make. Difference of IRR and NPV The major difference is that while Net Present Value is expressed in monetary units (Euro's or Dollars for example), the IRR is the true interest yield expected from an investment expressed as a percentage. InternalRate of Return is the flip side of Net Present Value and is based on the same principles and the same calculations. NPV shows the value of a stream of future cash flows discounted back to the present by some percentage that represents the minimum desired rate of return, often your company's cost of capital. IRR, on the other hand, computes a break-even rate of return. It...

...InternalRate of Return
In investment decision analysis you may need to calculate internalrate of return. “Internalrate of return (IRR) is the discount rate that gives the project a zero NPV” (McLaney, 2006). It is a good choice to use for investment projects. There is a formula for the internalrate ofreturn:
(A is the lower discount rate and B is the higher rate, a is the NPV at the lower rate and b is the NPV at the higher rate.) For example the Net Present Value (NPV) is 88 when the discount rate is 20%, and the NPV is 12 when the discount rate is 30%. Therefore the IRR in this situation is 28.8%. The consequence should be compared with the rate of return which the company’s required. If the IRR higher than that, the project should be accepted otherwise it will not be accepted.
From our lecturer Linda’s lectures we knew that there are some advantages and disadvantages. The internalrate of return is simple to interpret and calculate which more easily understand than some other methods; and it is good if it uses with NPV. However there are some drawbacks as well: the output is a percentage rather than the physical size of the...

...$45M.
• What cash payments will be made by the company at the end of year seven?
As you can see in the graph below, the only cash outflows from the company in year 7 will come from debt financing, with about an $11M outflow from buying back the building from Frank Thomas, as well as about a $6M outflow from paying back the 9% interest loan.
2) At what price must Harmonic repurchase the building from Frank Thomas to produce his required 15% after-tax return?
In order for Frank Thomas to earn his 15% after tax return, Harmonic must buyback the building for just over $11M. The calculations can be seen in the chart below.
3) What proportion of the terminal value must be distributed to Comet Capital to produce its required 25% before-tax rate of return?
In order for Comet Capital to produce its 25% before tax return, they must receive about $73.5M terminal value. This amount is about 69% of the total terminal value at the end of year 7.
4) What are the forecasted cash flows, rates of return on investment, and value created for Burns and Irvine under the debt and equity financing alternatives?
As you can see in the chart below, in respect to equity financing, the forecasted cash flows begin negative, and then gradually increase until a highly increase terminal sell price. The IRR of the investment will be 559%. And the value created from their...

...Accounting rate of return
Accounting rate of return (also known as simple rate of return) is the ratio of estimated accounting profit of a project to the average investment made in the project. ARR is used in investment appraisal.
Formula
Accounting Rate of Return is calculated using the following formula:
ARR =
Average Accounting Profit
Average Investment
Average accounting profit is the arithmetic mean of accounting income expected to be earned during each year of the project's life time. Average investment may be calculated as the sum of the beginning and ending book value of the project divided by 2. Another variation of ARR formula uses initial investment instead of average investment.
Decision Rule
Accept the project only if its ARR is equal to or greater than the required accounting rate of return. In case of mutually exclusive projects, accept the one with highest ARR.
Examples
Example 1: An initial investment of $130,000 is expected to generate annual cash inflow of $32,000 for 6 years. Depreciation is allowed on the straight line basis. It is estimated that the project will generate scrap value of $10,500 at end of the 6th year. Calculate its accounting rate of return assuming that there are no other expenses on the project.
Solution
Annual Depreciation = (Initial Investment −...

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