Defining and testing for intelligence is a controversial issue and has been since the first intelligence test was created and administered. Many forms of intelligence and achievement tests exist and using a particular test is a matter of preference and depending on the areas of intelligence is desired to be measured. This paper will start by critiquing the major definitions of intelligence, and determine the best definition for each chosen intelligence and achievement instruments. It will also evaluate the reliability, validity, normative procedures, and biasness of each intelligence measurement. The measurements will be compared and contrasted while also considering the ethical implications of using intelligence and achievement test in educational settings. Intelligence Definitions
Cohen and Swerdlik (2010), states that intelligence manifest itself in the following abilities: acquiring and using knowledge, logically reasoning skills, effective planning, perception, judgment making, problem solving attention, visualizing concepts, intuition, and coping, adjusting, and dealing with situations. These abilities are not a definite definition of intelligence but are merely a combination of the abilities that characterize and measure intelligence. Most of these abilities are a composite of the definitions and explanations of intelligence by others. The main contributors of defining and explaining intelligence are Francis Galton, Alfred Binet, David Wechsler, and Jean Piaget (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).
Galton believed that people learn only from the information that passes through the five senses. With Galton’s theory it could be said that hearing, vision, touching, tasting, and smelling are each processors of intelligence. Galton’s definition does not explain how the five senses interpret information and turning it into knowledge and abilities (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).
Binet, who is best known for the...