After the industrial revolution people became increasingly affluent. This led to social segregation – rich move out of inner city suburbs. People left in the inner city: * Older residents
* Single parent families
* Poorer families
* Ethnic minorities left behind – formation of ghettos.
Decentralisation increases the problem:
Movement of businesses out of inner city – unemployment – Dead Heart. Removal of businesses causes a loss of money from the area so there is little money available to invest in improvements. Out-of-town shopping centres means less wealthy are deprived of better shops – less mobile.
Inner city Problems
* Properties have deteriorated
* High percentage of overcrowded households
* Higher death & infant mortality rates
* Lower life expectancy
* Social segregation – Racial discrimination e.g. Brixton. People are socially excluded. * Persistent unemployment – culture of poverty
* High levels of stress due to poverty – family breakdowns.
* Loss of business & industry – massive unemployment (51% above national average) * Few people can afford to own their own houses or invest any money. * Local authorities have little taxes so lack of investment in the local area. * Environmental decay – spiral of decline.
* Businesses put off by high land prices, lack of space, high crime & traffic congestion.
* Decay & deprivation of factories – seedbeds for crime e.g. drugs. * Lack of open space
* Dereliction and poor state of repair causes depressing environment. * Air pollution
* Local watercourses often badly polluted by factories.
Overall, the problem was so bad that there were multiple deprivations due to huge number of different problems that the areas face. There were numerous initiatives to try to stop deterioration.