IT Infrastructure & Emerging Technologies
I. Define IT infrastructure and identify its components.
a. IT infrastructure= the shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firm’s specific information system applications. i. Includes investment in hardware, software, and services (such as consulting, education, & training) that are shared across the entire firm or business. ii. Provides the foundation for serving customers, working with vendors, and managing internal firm business processes. b. IT components
iii. Computer hardware platforms
1. Used to provide computing services that connect employees, customers, & suppliers into a coherent digital environment 2. Ex: large mainframes, desktop & laptop computers, internet appliances, etc. 3. Blade servers= ultrathin computers consisting of a circuit board w/ processors, memory, & network connections that are stored in racks. iv. Enterprise software platforms
4. Application software services that provide enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, supply chain management, & knowledge management systems that are shared by all business units v. Networking & telecommunications platforms
5. Provide data, voice, & video connectivity to employees, customers, & suppliers vi. Database management platforms
6. Store & manage corporate data & provide capabilities for analyzing the data 7. Storage area networks (SANs)= connect multiple storage devices on a separate high-speed network dedicated to storage. 1) Creates a large central pool of storage that can be rapidly accessed & shared by multiple servers. vii. Internet platforms
viii. Consulting services & systems integrators
II. Identify changes in IT infrastructure
c. 5 stages of IT infrastructure evolution
1) Mainframe Era (1959 to Present)
-The introduction of IBM 1401 & 7090 machines in 1959 marked the beginning. -a period of highly centralized computing under the control of professional programmers & systems operators, w/ most elements of infrastructure provided by a single vendor, the manufacturer, & the software. 2) Personal Computer Era (1981 to Present)
-The appearance of the IBM PC in 1981 considered beginning of PC era b/c this machine was the first to be widely adopted by American businesses.
-Wintel PC computer- Windows operating system software on a computer w/ an Intel microprocessor
-95% of the world’s billions of computers use the Wintel standard.
3) Client/ Server Era (1983 to Present)
-In client/ server computing: desktop or laptop computers called clients are networked to powerful server computers that provide the client computers w/ a variety of services & capabilities. -Computer processing work is split between these 2 types of machines…
-Client= user point of entry
-Server= typically processes & stores shared data, serves up Web pages, or manages network actvities. -multitiered (often called N-tier) client/ server architectures= the work of the entire network is balanced over several different levels of servers, depending on the kind of service being requested. -Web server= will serve a Web page to client in response for a request for service.
-Web server software is responsible for locating & managing stored Web pages. -application server- this software handles all application operations between a user & an organization’s back-end business systems. -**Client/ server computing enables businesses to distribute computing work across a series of smaller, inexpensive machines that cost much less than minicomputers or centralized mainframe systems.
-**The result is an explosion in computing power & applications throughout the firm....