Information Technology

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Q.No 1.

Explain the following:

i. Web Browser

ii. M-Commerce

iii. Electronic Fund Transfer ( EFT)

I) Web Browser: A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video or other piece of content.[1] Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems. The major web browsers are Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari.[2] II) M-Commerce: Mobile Commerce, or m-Commerce, is about the explosion of applications and services that are becoming accessible from Internet-enabled mobile devices. It involves new technologies, services and business models. It is quite different from traditional e-Commerce. Mobile phones impose very different constraints than desktop computers. But they also open the door to a slew of new applications and services. They follow you wherever you go, making it possible to look for a nearby restaurant, stay in touch with colleagues, or pay for items at a store. iii) Electronic funds transfer (EFT) is the electronic exchange, transfer of money from one account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, through computer-based systems.Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) provides for electronic payments and collections.EFT is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections. While it costs the U.S. government $1.03 to issue each check payment, it costs only 10.5 cents to issue an EFT payment. What is URL?

A uniform resource locator, abbreviated URL, also known as web address, is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to a resource. In most web browsers, the URL of a web page is displayed on top inside an address bar. An example of a typical URL would be "". A URL is technically a type of uniform resource identifier (URI), but in many technical documents and verbal discussions, URL is often used as a synonym for URI, and this is not considered a problem.[1] Question-3 Different between the following:

Question No-3:


a) bus network and ring network

b) circuit switching and packet switching

c) software documentation and system design documentation

d) Artificial intelligence and expert system

Bus network and ring network
In a ring topology, the nodes are connected in a ring and data travels in one direction using a control signal called a 'token'. Advantages:
• Not greatly affected by adding further nodes or heavy network traffic as only the node with the 'token' can transmit data so there are no data collisions. • Relatively cheap to install and expand.

• Slower than a star topology under normal load.
• If the cable fails anywhere in the ring then the whole network will fail. Bus (line) topology:
Nodes are connected to a main (bus) cable. If data is being sent sent between nodes then other nodes cannot transmit.  If too many nodes are connected then the transfer of data slows dramatically as the nodes have to wait longer for the bus to be clear. Advantages:

a) The simplest and cheapest to install and extend.
b) Well suited for temporary networks with not many nodes. Disadvantages:
a) If the bus cable fails then the whole network will fail. b) Performance of the network slows down rapidly with more nodes or heavy network traffic. B. Circuit Switching:

1.) In circuit switching, there are various nodes used in the network through which the signals are passed from one system to another. 2.) In this a number of...
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