Information Systems Review

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Privacy and Ethics
* Ethics- principles of right and wrong that indv, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors * Info sys raise new ethical questions bc they create opportunities for: intense social change, threatening existing distributions of power, money, rights, and obligations; new kinds of crime * Tech trends that raise ethical issues:

* Doubling of computer power: more orgs depend on comp sys for critical operations * Rapidly declining data storage costs: orgs can easily maintain detailed databases on indvs * Networking advances and the internet: copying data from one location to another and accessing personal data from remote locations is much easier * Advances in data analysis techniques: companies can analyze vast quantities of data gathered on individuals for: profiling (combing data from multiple sources to get more info on a person) & nonobvious relationship awareness NORA (combing data from multiples sources to find obscure hidden connections that could help identify criminals or terrorists) * Privacy- claim of indv to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other indv, orgs, or state. Claim to be able to control info about yourself * FIP Principles: Fair Info Practice- based on mutuality of interest btwn record holder and individual * 1. Notice/awareness

* 2. Choice/consent
* 3. Access/participation
* 4. Integrity/security
* 5. Enforcement
* Digital divide- the gap between people and countries who have opportunity and skills enabling them to benefit from digital resources, esp. the internet, and those who do not have these opportunities * Intellectual property- intangible property of any kind created by indvs or corps * Three main ways that protect IP:

* Copyright- statutory grant protecting intellectual property from being copied for the life of the author, plus 70 years * Trade secret- intellectual work or product belonging to bus, not in the public domain * Patents- grants creator of invention an exclusive monopoly on ideas behind invention for 20 years * Cookies- tiny files downloaded by web site to visitor’s hard drive to help identify visitor’s browser and track visits to site=allows websites to develop profiles on visitors * Web beacons/bugs- tiny graphics embedded in email and web pages to monitor who is reading the message * Pirated software- the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software – violation of copyright law * Spam- unsolicited email from businesses advertising goods and services * Behavioral targeting- technique used by online publishers and advertisers which allows them to increase the effectiveness of their ads by capturing website and landing page visitor data using that info to provide these visitors with ads that are relevant to their needs and interests * Patent trolls- a “non-practicing entity” with no business activities or employees of its own * Exploit weaknesses in the patent sys without adding value, license patents without producing goods, extract licensing fees from real innovators * The Sarbances-Oxley Act- stop online piracy act

* Enron, WorldCom, Tyco: fraud, illegal accounting practices, which resulted in this act * Advantages: protect American intellectual property (pro: American fed of musicians, US Chamber of Commerce) * Disadvantages: empower the attorney general to create a blacklist of sites to be blocked by internet service providers, search engines, without a trial; companies would be liable for users’ actions (pro: google, facebook, twitter)

Security- policies, procedures and technical measures used to prevent unauthorized access, alteration, theft, or physical damage to info sys. * Malware - what they are and how they affect computer systems * Spyware- software that secretly monitors...
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