Terminology associated with the timber industry comes in many forms; it is used to address other workers, to give a quick response to a question or to make statements shorter and to not go into extensive detail. Examples of certain timber terminology includes; a Crook: Distortion of a piece of lumber, Header: a structural member located between the stud joint or rafter. These are a few instances of terminology as there are many more than this. Timber recovery and conversion is when timber is collected either from deposits or from land and sawn into newer sheets of wood, or burned and used for something else such as firewood, this practice is commonly sought after. When wood is converted it can also be broken down into chips and remade into sheets of ply for use thereafter. * Live Sawing: This gives the most timber from the log; it’s the most simple and cheapest way to cut the log into boards. Timber cut in this method may shrink or warp unevenly. This timber is suitable for construction work, fences and crates * Quarter sawing: The log is quartered lengthwise, resulting in wedges with a right angle ending at approximately the centre of each log. The resulting boards are called quarter sawn. * Back sawing: Takes high quality timber from faulty logs. It allows for the faulty parts to be cut around with little waste. Back sawing is used for floor and ceiling joints as there is more strength in the direction of the growth rings. * Flitches and Burls are deformities on the outside of timber, it’s found on the outgrowth on a tree trunk. Flitches are slices of veneer form a tree trunk and are kept in the order of which they were sawn. * Stability is the limit to which timber can re shaped and formed. If timber is stable then it would have been seasoned and therefore maintains its shape without curling. * Seasoning is the process in which moisture is dried out from the cell walls and cell cavities of the wood. Air seasoning is a natural drying method which takes either a few days or a few weeks in which timber is stacked in well ventilated stacks out in the open. Kiln seasoning is an artificial drying method in which timber is placed in large drying rooms in which controlled temperature and humidity circuate around the boards. * Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) affects the stability of the timber. As moisture content increases. Timber swells. If moisture content decreases, timber shrinks. Timber should ‘move’ in very minor amounts, so therefore it should be properly seasoned.
Timber selection considerations refers to what to consider when selecting timbers, hardwoods and soft woods may be chosen as they both have different moisture contents and therefore different considerations must be put into place. * Plantation timbers come from artificially planted forest or plantation. Timber gained from plantation comes from fast growing trees used for lumber. * Exotic Timbers are timbers that are rare and hard to come by, the timber is a reddish brown and is prized by woodworkers, it is used in wood turnings, handles and other items, an example of an Exotic wood is Allocasuarina Torulosa or known as Forest Oak. * Recycling/Reusing Timber is the process of salvaging timber products from old buildings, bridges and wharfs, the timber is then taken to a mill where all metal objects are removed and the the timber is re-sawn and sold to consumers usually as flooring, beams or decking. * ‘Green’ Timbers are wood products that have recently cut and have therefore not had an opportunity to season by evaporation of the internal moisture. The term applies to wood such as firewood lumber. * Economical Usage/ Waste Minimisation revolves around how to control timber wastage. Scrap timber can be reused in other projects where necessary and therefore saves time and money from buying more timber for...