Development of Engineering since the Industrial Revolution
The Main Outcomes of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution had a huge impact on society. The major effects were socially and economically. It is rather difficult to date the start of the industrial revolution but history books of today suggest the onset during the 18th century. The change from agriculture to industry was vast and it must be remembered that England was the first country to undergo this profound change. The initial effect on engineering industries arising at the start of the Industrial Revolution were due partly to the geographical location of the resources i.e. coal iron and water. The inventiveness of our ancestors in these as well as other industries such as textiles chemical electrical and transportation contributed greatly to the Industrial Revolution.
The first two of these coal and iron provided the capital infrastructure and options for future development, whilst textiles supported and encouraged developments. Coal was originally mined by small group's even families, using the long wall system. * SEE DIA 1. This technique was changed dramatically with the invention of the Commen engine. * SEE DIA 2. (named after its inventor THOMAS NEWCOMMEN) This was a pump that pumped the water out of coalmines allowing deeper more productive mines to be worked by more people. [This in turn had effects on the production of iron] In the early 1700s iron was produced by burning vast quantities of wood. The production techniques were crude. Technology had already provided machines like the newcommen engine; this pumping device allowed ABRAHAM DARBY II to fill a millpond to power a water wheel for a blast furnace. This enabled the production of better quality pig iron. This technique provided the iron for the manufacture of one of the major symbols of the industrial revolution the Ironbridge over the river seven. * SEE DIA 3.
A water wheel also played a major part in one of the first inventions within the textile industry. RICHARD ARKWRIGHT invented the water frame for spinning (1769) this device was used by local man JEDEDIAH STRUTT in a mill at Cromford. The changes within the textile industry from wool to cotton called for more and more mechanisation. The mechanisation of the industry also led the setting up of the first factories; some of the first major mechanical devices were to be used in these factories. Such as JOHN KAY'S Flying Shuttle (1733), JAMES HARGEAVE'S Spinning Jenny (1764), SAMUEL CROMPTON'S Spinning Mule (1779), and EDMUND CARTWRIGHT'S Power Loom (1785). To name a few. Cotton was being imported from the America's in the early 1700s. This material made the cities of Manchester and Nottingham increase in size over cities like Exeter and Norwich as they relied on wool.
These increases in sizes in our industrial towns coincided with an explosion in population, which has not been fully understood or explained since. All of these factors paved the way forward for a rapid rate of economic and social growth. Which spurred on the industrialisation of our country.
Development of New Energy Conversion Machines
The very first machines to be produced at the start of the industrial revolution were used in the textile industry. These machines utilised the waterpower from rivers and millponds to drive the various mechanisms employed. The first powered invention was the steam engine, originally the invention of THOMAS NEWCOMMEN (1705) but later developed by JAMES WATT (1769) Watt eventually went into partnership with MATHEW BOULTON to produce a rotary engine. This very important invention was used by mill owners to drive SAMUEL Compton's mule. They were also used in waterworks and breweries. After this came the non-condensing steam engine by RICHARD TREVITHICK whom in 1801 was the first to put into operation an engine carrying passengers. And then in...