INDUSTRIAL RAW MATERIALS RESOURCES INVENTORY
PAPERWORK ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN NIGERIA
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. Considering Political problems and Economic growth and Development of the Country, The Nuclear Power Plant should be the most appropriate for Nigeria. Due to the factors above, and concentrating on the abundance of Natural Resources of the Country (presence of Natural water bodies), I’ll recommend for Nigeria, the Hydropower as source of energy. This is due to the fact that construction of newer Dams in specific locations with higher Water bodies will bring about job opportunity, Encouragement of Agriculture (in the area of irrigation), Fish rearing amongst others. And also, low cost of maintenance, compared to nuclear power Plants. HOW TO GENERATE HYDROPOWER ENERGY
Hydro-electricity, or hydro-power, is usually generated by turbines in a dam in a river. The dam means that a great body of water builds up in the river valley behind the dam. This is released through the turbines when electricity is needed. Smaller than dams are barrages across the mouths of rivers which capture water from high tides and release it to generate electricity. Smaller still are turbines in river and tidal streams which do the same thing.
MODE OF OPERATION
According to Wood and Wollenberg (1996) and Batut and Renaud (1992), the complexity of hydropower plant operation is so high that so far there are no unique principles devised for their management that could be applicable in all situations.
The reasons for that are:
The inflow of water into hydropower plants depends upon a series of parameters that are difficult to forecast, so the plants have to adapt quickly to the actual situation, Water is a resource that is not used only for electricity generation, but also for water supply, melioration and other purposes, Hydropower plant operation is coupled with numerous limitations related to the environmental protection, valuable objects in the vicinity of the storages and Watercourses etc. The role of hydropower plants in the electricity generation and transmission system often dictates their dynamic operation (relatively frequent starts and shutdowns of their operation).
The main source of uncertainty in planning of development of an electricity generation and Transmission system is the stochastic nature of availability of the units in thermal-power plants, as well as the water inflow into hydropower plants. The value of 95% is assumed as the limit for the probability of the fulfillment of the demanded electricity generation plan, because the design of an electricity generation and transmission system that would have the probability of fulfillment of electricity generation plan equal to 100%, would be economically unjustified, (Milić, 2000). The greatest influence upon the fulfillment of the electricity generation plan has the usable discharge of the water flow, while the key factors regarding the fulfillment of the Demands related to power are rated discharge, head and, particularly, the size of the hydropower plant storage. Hydropower plants also have a great significance regarding the attaining of a stable operation of the electricity generation and transmission system. This is valid particularly for the formation of the operating reserve (covering of all non-planned ceases of electricity generation in the system before the start of the cold reserve) and a part of the cold reserve (covering of longer non-planned ceases of operation of the...
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