Indian Independence Movement and Goa Liberation Movement

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The Goa liberation movement was a movement that sought to end the 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa, India. The liberation movement gained mass momentum in the early 20th century (galvanizing between 1940-1961), and continued to build on the smaller scale revolts and uprisings of the preceding century. The struggle was conducted both within Goa and externally, and was characterized by a range of tactics including non-violent demonstrations, revolutionary methods and diplomatic efforts.[1][2] Although Portuguese rule in its Indian colonies ended when India invaded Goa in 1961[3] and incorporated the territories into the Indian Union, the annexation was recognized by Portugal only in 1975. -------------------------------------------------

Portuguese Possessions in India
Main article: Portuguese India
The Portuguese colonized India in 1510, conquering many parts of the western coast and establishing several colonies in the east. By the end of the 19th century, Portuguese colonies in India were limited to Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, Nagar Haveli and Anjediva Island. -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Revolts against Portuguese Rule
Many Goans living under colonial rule resented the Portuguese presence. The Goans resented the Portuguese colonialists for their brutal policies and mandates and their relentless campaigns to convert the predominantly Hindu Goans to Christianity.[4] Despite fourteen revolts against Portuguese rule (the final attempt in 1912),[5] none of these uprisings were successful in ending the colonial era. The failure of these uprisings to affect meaningful change was attributed to the lack of a broad, active support base and their localized nature. -------------------------------------------------

[edit]The freedom movement
[edit]Early 20th century
The abolition of the Portuguese monarchy in 1910 raised hopes that the colonies would be granted self-determination; however, in response to Portuguese colonial policies remaining unchanged, an organized and dedicated freedom movement emerged.[5] Luís de Menezes Bragançafounded O Heraldo, the first Portuguese language newspaper in Goa which was critical of Portuguese colonial rule.[6] In 1917, the "Carta Organica" law was passed, curating all civil liberties in Goa. As a reaction to growing dissent, the Portuguese government in Goa implemented polices which curtailed civil liberties, including censorship of the press. Strict censorship policies required any material containing printed words, including invitation cards, to be submitted to a censorship committee for screening. The Portuguese Governor of Goa was empowered to suspend publication, close down printing presses and impose heavy fines on newspapers who refused to comply with these policies. Many Goans criticized the curtailing of press freedoms, stating that the only newspapers and periodicals the Portuguese permitted to publish were pro-colonialist propaganda materials.[7] Menezes Braganza organized a rally in Margao denouncing the law and for some time the Goans received the same rights as mainlandPortuguese.[8] However, the Portuguese Catholic church strongly supported pro-colonial polices and attempted to influence Goan Christians to oppose the liberation movement. The Portuguese Patriarch of the Catholic Church in Goa issued over 60 official letters to the priests of the Archdiocese, instructing them to preach to their congregations that salvation lay with the Portuguese and in dissociating themselves from cultural-political relationship with the rest of India.[9] [edit]1920-1940

In 1928, T.B. Cunha founded the Goa National Congress. At the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress, the Goa Congress Committee received recognition and representation in the All-India Congress Committee.[10] In May 1930, Portugal passed the "Acto Colonial" (Colonial Act) which restricted political rallies and meetings within all Portuguese colonies. The introduction of this act...
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