The NDMA, as the apex body for disaster management, is headed by the Prime Minister and has the responsibility for laying down policies, plans and guidelines for DM and coordinating their enforcement and implementation for ensuring timely and effective response to disasters. The guidelines assist the Central Ministries, Departments and States to formulate their respective DM plans. It approves the National Disaster Management Plans and DM plans of the Central Ministries/Departments. It takes such other measures, as it may consider necessary, for the prevention of disasters, or mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building, for dealing with a threatening disaster situation or disaster. Central Ministries/Departments and State Governments extend necessary cooperation and assistance to NDMA for carrying out its mandate. It has to oversee the provision and application of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures. NDMA has the power to authorize the Departments or authorities concerned, to make emergency procurement of provisions or materials for rescue and relief in a threatening disaster situation or disaster. The general superintendence, direction and control of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is vested in and is exercised by the NDMA. The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) works within the framework of broad policies and guidelines laid down by the NDMA. The NDMA is mandated to deal with all types of disasters; natural or man-made. Whereas, such other emergencies including those requiring close involvement of the security forces and/or intelligence agencies such as terrorism (counter-insurgency), law and order situations, serial bomb blasts, hijacking, air accidents, CBRN weapon systems, mine disasters, port and harbor emergencies, forest fires, oilfield fires and oil spills will continue to be handled by the extant mechanism i.e., National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC). National Executive Committee (NEC):
The NEC is the executive committee of the NDMA, and is mandated to assist the NDMA in the discharge of its functions and also ensure compliance of the directions issued by the Central Government. The NEC is to coordinate the response in the event of any threatening disaster situation or disaster. The NEC prepares the National Plan for Disaster Management based on the National Policy on Disaster Management. The NEC also monitors the implementation of guidelines issued by NDMA and also performs such other functions as may be prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with the NDMA. State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA):
At the State level, the SDMA, headed by the Chief Minister, lays down policies and plans for DM in the State. It approves the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA, coordinates the implementation of the State Plan, recommends provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures and review the developmental plans of the different Departments of the State to ensure the integration of prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures. The State Government constitutes a State Executive Committee (SEC) to assist the SDMA in the performance of its functions. The SEC is headed by the Chief Secretary to the State Government and coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan and the State Plan. The SEC also provides information to the NDMA relating to different aspects of DM. District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA):
The DDMA is headed by the District Collector, Deputy Commissioner or District Magistrate as the case may be, with the elected representative of the local authority as the Co-Chairperson. The DDMA acts as the planning, coordinating and implementing body for DM at the District level and takes all necessary measures for the purposes of...