Impact of Strategic Planning on Performance

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ABSTRACT

In recent years the rise in stress has seen across all spheres of life, particularly in the workplace. Stress in organizations is a wide-spread phenomenon with far-reaching practical and economic consequences. Various studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between job stress and job performance. Job performance can be viewed as an activity in which an individual is able to accomplish the task assigned to him/her successfully, subject to the normal constraints of reasonable utilization of the available resources.

In carrying out the study, random sampling technique was used to select 200 employees of different commercial banks operating in Kigali, Rwanda. Relevant data were collected using structured questionnaire. The chi-square test and t-test was used to test the hypothesis. The findings showed that job stress brings about subjective effects such as feeling undervalued and workplace victimization, unclear role( role ambiguity), work home interface; fear of joblessness, exposure to traumatic incidents at work and economic instability among our target population, resulting in poor concentration, mental block and poor decision making skills. Based on these findings, it was recommended that organizations should reduce psychological strain, work overload and role ambiguity through adoption of job redesign techniques. Organizational support activities such as counseling and stress reduction workshops should also be increased .The results revealed a negative relationship between Job stress and employees‟ job performance and shows that job stress significantly reduces the employee’s job performance.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
The workplace of the 21st century is a fast-paced, dynamic, highly stimulating environment which brings a large number of benefits and opportunities to those who work within it. The ever-changing demands of the working world can increase levels of stress, especially for those who are consistently working under pressure such as bank workers. Whilst pressure has its positive side in raising performance, if such pressure becomes excessive it leads to negative consequences.(Santiago,2003)

According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 6th Edition, stress could among other things, refer to pressure, tension or worries arising from problematic situations in an individual’s life. Where the incidence of such stress is traceable to a job or work situation, it is known as job stress (Narayanan et al 1999). As Narayanan et al (1999) further observe job stress could in fact be identified with almost any aspect of a job or work situation such as extremes of heat, noise and light, or too much or too little responsibility etc. According to Irene (2005) job stress “… is a pattern of reactions that occurs when workers are presented with work demands that are not matched to their knowledge, skills or abilities, and which challenge their ability to cope”. It is evident from this Irene’s definition that job stress is mostly associated with under-employment.

Stress at work is a relatively new phenomenon of modern lifestyles. The nature of work has gone through drastic changes over the last century and it is still changing at whirlwind speed. They have touched almost all professions, starting from an artist to a surgeon, or a commercial pilot to a sales executive. With change comes stress, inevitably. In most cases, job stress is attributable to negative situations such as a formal reprimand by one’s superior for poor performance. Pleasant circumstances could also bring about job stress, such as job promotion and transfer to another location. Most research findings suggest that when an individual undergo stress, his cognitive performance and decision-making may be adversely affected. Kazmi et al (2008) investigated the effect of job stress on job performance and found that there is a negative relationship between job stress and job performance. Shahu and...
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