Karachi based business communities of Memons, Khojas and Bhoras had led the first wave of industrial development in Pakistan but it were they who suffered most in the seperation of East Pakistan and Bhutto's nationalization. These business communities had been seasoned by persecutions of different types in their abodes in India and elsewhere, particularly, Burma, and therefore, they responded in the only way that was expected in such a situation , i.e switch over investment and move abroad. It is not surprising that several leading industrial families of the 1970 era have not set up a single big industrial project in 25 years since nationalization.
Earlier in this chapter, we have listed some projects abandoned by the big business, half or three quarters complete because nationalization order excluded private sector from operating in certain industrial fields. These projects mainly related to manufacture of tractors, automobiles and fertilizers which were capital intensive and employment generating. The sponsors of these gigantic projects resigned themselves in the post-Bhutto era to become traders or at best spinner of yarn and processor of sugarcane.
The sweep of nationalization, its impact on the psyche of the big business and thus on Pakistan's industrial development can not be comprehended without taking a look at the taken-over industries, companies and their ownership.
In six traumatic years of Z A Bhutto, 31 key industrial units, 13 banks, over a dozen insurance companies, 10 shipping companies and two petroleum companies were nationalized, out of which at least 22 industrial units, 9 banks, 9 insurance companies, 3 shipping companies and 2 petroleum companies belonged to the 22 families. Nasim Saigol claimed in the interview with the author that Saigols lost 70% of their assets in Bhutto's nationalization.
Following is the list of industaries and companies nationalized by Bhutto and the groups owning them.
31 Key industries nationalized in 1972
Units taken over in Karachi
1 Steel Corporation of Pakistan Fancy
2 Hyeson's Steel Hyesons
3 Ali Automobiles Jaffer Bros
4 Kandawala Industries
5 ROK Industries
6 Haroon Industries Haroon
7 Wazir Ali Industries Packages
8 Gandhara Industries Bibojee
9 Indus Chemical and Industries
10 Valika Cement Valika
11 Karachi Gas Fancy
12 Valika Chemicals Valika
13 Karachi Electric Fancy-Jaffer Bros
14 National Refinery
15 Pakistan Fertilizer Corporation Jaffer Bros
Units taken over in Punjab and NWFP
16 BECO C.M.Latif
18 Ittefaq Foundry...