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CVEN-3313 Theoretical Fluid Mechanics
MODULE#4 : Application of Impact on a Jet

1. OBJECTIVE
To use the momentum equation to estimate the force exerted by a jet on a stationary target.

2. THEORY
The momentum equation in the vertical (z) direction can be written as:

Applying the momentum equation for a control volume including the forces acting on a flat target or hemispherical target gives: (1a : flat)
(1b : hemi)

It is assumed that the velocity going out of the control volume is equal to the velocity coming in. Additionally, the elevation difference within the control is assumed to be negligible. The vertical force caused by the jet is balanced by the mass placed on the weight pan.

(2)

The initial velocity of the jet, v0, is :
(3)

From Bernoulli’s equation, the jet velocity, v, in the control volume at the target is :

(4)

Combining equations (1) through (4), the following equations can be obtained for the flat and hemispherical targets, respectively.

(5a : flat) (5b : hemi)

3. PROCEDURE
1) Install the flat target in the jet apparatus.
2) Level the apparatus and adjust the pointer for zero deflection. 3) Place a 50g mass on the weight pan.
4) Increase the flow rate until the weight induced by the 50g is balanced by the force of the jet. 5) Measure the actual flow rate, Qactual, by recording the time required to collect 10L. Use the volume gauge on the bench. 6) Repeat steps 3-5 for 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500g mass increments. 7) Repeat the procedure for the hemispherical target.

4. RESULTS & ANALYSIS
1) Equations (5a) and (5b) are non-linear with respect to flow rate Qtheor. These can be solved...

...
IMPACT OF a jet
ABSTRACT
The objective of this experiment is to determine the force exerted by a jet of water on vanes of various shape.Three different shape of vanes;flat plate,conical cup,and hemispherical cup are used for this experiment.The results obtain from the experiment are then used to compare with the theoretical results.Force generated on the surface of vane depends on the rate of change of momentum and it can be calculated by recording the time taken for water to reach a certain height and also the displacement of a jockey weight above apparatus.As a conclusion,the angle of the jet on the vane is directly proportional to the force produced.
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The aim of this experiment is to determine the force generated by the impact of the water jets on different shapes of vanes, which would be flat surface , conical cup and hemisphere cup and also how does the force related to the momentum flow rate in the jet. We will measure the velocity changed during hitting the vanes of various shapes and the force generated will be compared with the momentum changed.
Water turbine is a water-based power generating system operate by converting the impact of water jet into torque power of turbine to generate electrical power. One or more water jets, normally under pressure , are directed tangentially to the buckets...

...Abstract
The objective of this experiment is to measure the force generated by impact of the jet on vanes of various shapes like flat plate, conical cup and hemispherical cup. Besides that, the results from the experiment have to be compared with the theoretical calculations too.
1.0 Introduction
Water turbines are widely used throughout the world to generate power. By allowing fluid under pressure to strike the vanes of a turbine wheel, mechanical work can be produced. Rotational motion is then produced by the force generated as the jet strikes the vanes. One way of producing mechanical work from fluid under pressure is to use the pressure to accelerate the fluid to a high velocity in a jet. The jet is directed on to the vanes of a turbine wheel, which is rotated by the force generated in the vanes due to the momentum change or impulse which takes place as the jet strikes the vanes. Water turbines working on this impulse principle have been constructed with outputs of the order of 100,000 kW and with efficiencies greater than 90%. In this experiment, the force generated by a jet of water as it strikes a flat plate, conical plate and hemispherical cup may be measured and compared with the momentum flow rate in the jet.
2.0 Experimental Design
2.1 Apparatus and Materials
The jetimpact apparatus
Volumetric...

...Impact of A Jet
Philip Mah Koon Yue
Mohananda a/l Anantha Krishnan
Ahmad Saeed Abood
Eleanor Hang Lee Shean
Chan Jun Hoe
School of Engineering
Taylor’s University
Malaysia
23 March 2011
Table of Content
Abstract
3
1. Introduction
3
2. Experiment Design
3
2.1 Materials
3
2.2 Methods & Procedures
4
3. Results and discussion
5
4. Conclusion and Recommendations
8
References
8
Appendix
9
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to find the impact of water on different types of vanes, it consists of 3 types the flat plate, conical cup and the hemispherical cup. Forces are generated by jet of water impacts the vanes that produces various angles of deflection. In the end the slope calculated was used to compare with the theoretical slope and the deviation slope was calculated.
1.0 Introduction
One of the ways of producing mechanical work from fluid under pressure is to use the pressure to accelerate the fluid at high velocity in a jet. The jet is directed on the vanes of a turbine wheel, which is rotated by the force generated on the vanes due to the momentum change or impulse which takes place as the jet strikes the vanes. Water turbines working on this impulse principle have been constructed with outputs of the order of 100,000 kW and with efficiencies greater than 90%.
There are mainly two objectives...

...objective for this experiment is to verify the momentum equation experimentally through the impact of jet against deflectors. There are four deflectors used in this experiment. The four deflectors are plate, hemisphere, slope and cone. The loading weights to be used are 0.8 N, 1.0 N, 1.5 N and 2.0 N. In this experiment, the time taken for the water level in the volumetric tank to raise from 10 to 20 L is determined by using a stop watch. The flow rate, calculated force and the error percentage will be calculated in this experiment. The theoretical and measured force will be compared in this experiment.
2.0 INTRODUCTION
The aim of this experiment is to verify the momentum equation experimentally through the impact of jet against deflectors. This experiment use different forces exerted by the water jet on different geometrical plates. The exerted forces will generate the momentum change and also determine the flow rate of water in the volumetric tank to raise from 10 to 20 L. This helps us to understand how forces can affect the change of momentum flow in the jet. The theoretical jet force can be calculated from the principle of linear momentum. The density of water is 1kg/L. The results obtained are to be compared with the theoretical values. To produce mechanical work from fluid under pressure, we use the pressure to accelerate the fluid to...

...EG-125 Civil Labs II
ALEXANDRA T. STANLEY 647341
Main Report: Impact of a Jet
Team: B Evans 640786
T Denham 636120
J Cheetham 650261
J Davies 622673
Impact of a Jet
Introduction:
* The force produced and measured by this experiment can be used to produce energy in hydroelectric turbines.
* The aims in this experiment were to:
* Determine the force applied by the jet to the plate
* Compare the experimental result to the theoretical values, showing that the force exerted on the plate by the jet is equal to the rate of change of momentum in the jet.
Theory:
-theoretical: Normal force on the plate (Fx)=ρQV1 where ρ=density, Q=flow, V1=the x component of velocity of the fluid.
-experimental: force due to the jet= xw/L where L=0.151m and w=0.5kg
Procedure: -adjust the weight to set distance(see results table)
-open the valve so that the force provided by the jet causes equilibrium in the system.
-record the time taken for 0.006m3 of water to collect in the tank.
-from this determine the flow rate (volume/time)
-use the formulae mentioned in the theory section to determine the experimental and theoretical values for the force.
-repeat these stages for at least 4 more values of x (spacing 2cm between readings recommended).
Results:
Conclusion: the experimental results are not far...

...Exp. (6): Flow Over Weirs
Purpose:
* To demonstrate the characteristics of flow over weirs.
* To determine the 'Coefficient of Discharge' for each type of weir.
Introduction:
In open channel hydraulics, weirs are commonly used to either regulate or to measure the volumetric flow rate. They are of particular use in large scale situations such as irrigation schemes, canals and rivers. For small scale applications, weirs are often referred to as notches and invariably are sharp edged and manufactured from thin plate material.
Apparatus:
Hydraulics Bench incorporates a weir channel. The rectangular notch weir or (V) vee notch weir to be tested is clamped to the weir carrier in the channel by thumb nuts.
4
2
5
8
7
6
3
1
Figure 1: Flow over Weirs - Figure 2: Flow over Weirs -
vee notch weir rectangular notch weir
1
5
2
6
Hydraulics Bench Basket of glass spheres
3
Weir channel Volumetric measuring tank
4
(V) Vee notch weir7
Rectangular weir
Hook & point gauge Hook Gauge and Scale8
There are different shapes of weirs that can be used to measure the volumetric flow rate. These shapes with their dimension are shown in fig 3 below.
Figure 3: Details of weirs
Theory:
* Rectangular Weir:
A rectangular notch is a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir channel as shown in figure 4.
| |
Figure 4: Rectangular Notch
Consider the flow in an element of height δh at a depth...

...CVE3208 | Fluid Mechanics | Lab Report | 2012
Experiment 2 Impact of Jet
CVE3208 Fluid Mechanics
Ahmed Sujeeth I11009050 BCEGI - Semester 4
Lecturer: Dr. Khin Maung Win
19th November 2012
Page 1 of 9
Ahmed Sujeeth | I11009050 | BCEGI
CVE3208 | Fluid Mechanics | Lab Report | 2012 Title : Impact of Jet To investigate the validity of theoretical expressions for the force exerted by a jet on targets of various shapes. The impact of jet on a surface is a common day engineering application. One such example is the application of this principle on the Pelton wheel where power is generated due to the force of the jet which hits the bucket, which in turn rotates the wheel. Although it has been proven that there is loss of energy due to the impact and also loss in pipe flow, this method remains one of the most effective proven principles of generating power. To predict the maximum or minimum output of such engineering applications, the deflection and force of the jet on various geometrical variations must be determined. This experiment deals with verifying the expression of force due to impact of the jet on a variety of geometrical plates. By Newton’s second law of motion, F ma F ṁ change in velocity where Mass low per unit time ṁ F ρav v v cosθ Fy ρQ v v cosθ where v For flat targets...

...ABSTRACT
The purpose of the impact of jet experiment is to design a system to determine the force generated by the impact of jet on a variety of target vanes. A formula is given to calculate the reaction force at the different vanes caused by the jet. At the end of the experiment, the data collected and results calculated will then be compared to theoretical values which are given. Students are expected to be able to come to a conclusion regarding the relationship between the reaction force produced at the target vanes and the angle where the shape of the vanes curve.
1.1 INTRODUCTION
There are many ways to produce mechanical work from fluid under pressure. One of the famous ways is to use the pressure to accelerate the fluid to a high velocity in a jet. Over the years, engineers have found many ways to utilize the force that can be produced by a jet of fluid on a surface diverting the flow. For example, the pelton wheel has been used to make flour. Firemen make use of the kinetic energy stored in a jet to deliver water above the level in the nozzle to extinguish fires in tall buildings. Fluid jets are also used in industry for cutting metals and debarring. This goes to show the importance of applications of the fluid jet in the technological aspects of various fields in our society.
This experiment aims at...

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