Immune System and Classical Pathway

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1. The pediatrician described Jason’s pharynx, uvula, and tonsils as swollen and red. What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation, and how does each relate to changes in the blood vessels at a site of inflammation? Heat, redness, swelling and pain and according to the book loss of movement in in a joint. The damaged or in this case the infected area is inundated with phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages) and what is called complement is activated and if the classical pathway is used that means the antibodies are produced and complement proteinsC1,2 and 4 are activated and in turn activated C3. The alternative pathway is when C3 and factors B,D, and P interact on the surface of the pathogen and C3 is again turned on and at this point it is split into C3a and C3b. When C3b binds to the pathogen the inflammation we all know and love becomes present. Fever is a response by the neurons in the hypothalamus in response to pyrogens which are secreted by macrophages and leukocytes. Pain is caused by the swelling of the area in question as the nerves are being pressed and toxins affecting the area. 2. The exudate on Jason’s tonsils consisted primarily of neutrophils, and the CBC that was performed indicated that the number of neutrophils in his circulation was increased. What role do neutrophils play in the resolution of a bacterial infection? In the course of your answer explain terms such as adhesion molecules, diapedesis, chemotaxsis, opsonization, and phagocytosis. White blood cells are induced by factors which are released when tissue is injured and white blood cells phagocytize the pathogen. The inflamed tissues releases cell adhesion molecules which slow down the WBC’s so they can adhere to the pathogen in a process called margination. When they flatten and go through the capillary wall diapedesis is said to have occurred. Chemotaxsis is where the phagocytic agents follow their noses so to speak to where the inflammation began. 3. Jason’s...
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