STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY REALITY
Hypothesis is a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation.
Generation of Research Hypothesis
Research usually starts with a problem. Questions, objectives and Hypotheses provide a specific restatement and clarification of the problem statement/research question.
In qualitative research, the research question may assume two forms: The grand tour question Sub questions
Criteria of Problem Statement/Research Question:
•Should express a relation between two or more variables. Is A related to B? •Should be clearly stated and unambiguously in question form. “How do incentives affect the performance?”(Question form) “The problem is to question the relation between incentives and performance.“ (Statement form) •Should be such as to imply possibilities of empirical testing. Metaphysical questions, unrelated variables, not measurable and indefinable variables cannot be tested.
Criteria of Hypotheses
•They should be statements expressing the relation between two or more measurable variables. •They should carry clear implications for testing the stated relations.
Difference between Hypotheses and Problems
Problem is a question and is not testable Hypotheses can be tested
Relation between variables in problem statements:
Relation between variables in hypotheses:
Is A related to B?
If A, then B.
How are A and B related to C?
If A & B then C.
How is A related to B under conditions C and D?
If A, then B under conditions C and D.
Hypothesis needs to be structured before the data-gathering and interpretation phase of the research: • • A well-grounded hypothesis indicates that the researcher has sufficient knowledge in the area to undertake the investigation. The hypothesis gives direction to the collection and interpretation of data.
Finding the data first and then formulating the hypothesis is like…. throwing the dice first and then betting.
DEFINITIONS OF HYPOTHESIS
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
A hypothesis may be precisely defined as a tentative proposition suggested as a solution to a problem or as an explanation of some phenomenon. (Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh, 1984) A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables. (Kerlinger, 1956) Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable. (Creswell, 1994) Hypothesis relates theory to observation and observation to theory. (Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh, 1984) Hypotheses are relational propositions. (Kerlinger, 1956) Hypothesis is a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation.
THE USABLE HYPOTHESIS
• • • • •
It must have explanatory power. It must state the expected relationship between variables. It must be testable. It should be consistent with the existing body of knowledge. It should be stated as simply and concisely as possible.
Purpose and Importance of Hypotheses in a Scientific Research • It provides a tentative explanation of phenomena and facilitates the extension of knowledge in an area. • It provides the investigator with a relational statement that is directly testable in a research study. • It provides direction to the research. • It provides a framework for reporting conclusions of the study. • It could be considered as the working instrument of theory. Hypotheses can be deduced from theory and from other hypotheses. • It could be tested and shown to be probably supported or not supported, apart from man’s own values and opinions.
A null hypothesis is a statement that there is no actual relationship between variables. (HO or HN) • • • • • A null hypothesis may read, “There is no difference between…..” Ho states the opposite of what the experimenter would expect or predict. The final...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document