Human Profile

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  • Topic: Security, Air safety, Security guard
  • Pages : 24 (7177 words )
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  • Published : March 31, 2013
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Chapter 5

Human Factors in Aviation Security

Contents
Page

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Background on Human Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 FAA AND HUMAN FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 FAA Policy and Plans for Human Factors and Aviation Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 FAA Requirements for Aviation Security: Human-Factors Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Other Issues for Human Factors and Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Policy Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Box
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5-A. UAL Hi-Tech Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Chapter 5

Human Factors in Aviation Security
factors in these cases can greatly improve the utilization of technology for airline security. Dramatic accidents caused by human errors in the nuclear power, chemical, and transportation industries have increased public attention to human performance issues during the past decade. Additional training requirements, revised operating procedures, warning devices, and expanded government oversight are typical recommendations following accident investigations. However, these stopgap measures address only the surface of problems that are rooted in the complex interactions of people and equipment within the larger system and the institutional and organizational structures and procedures that drive the planning, design, and management of these systems. Following the ground collision of two jetliners in Detroit in December 1990, Dr. John Lauber, a member of the National Transportation Board, said that “basically the [aviation] system, the way we’re operating it, almost demands nearly error-free [human] performance. ’ Similar concerns can be echoed for the aviation security system—a number of successful airline terrorist events have been traced to a human failure.2 “The challenge is to design a system. . which is tolerant of those errors when they do occur and which detects and traps them before we have [a catastrophe]. ”3 Multilayered defenses are employed at many commercial airports and airline terminals, and security managers and government authorities are turning to new technologies to buttress these systems. Heretofore, Federal requirements and industry use of security technologies have usually been with specific functions in mind. As long as the technical goals could be met effectively, the equipment was considered satisfactory and human performance problems related to the technology were resolved through revised training and procedures. Technology use in counterterrorism will likely increase dramatically over the next decade, but if early and

INTRODUCTION
Human resources are critical to aviation security. Security personnel—passenger and baggage screeners, guards and law enforcement officers, and airport and airline employees in general-are important elements of a system that prevents and deters hostile acts against air carriers. Technology can enhance, but cannot replace, the capabilities of these people and the many services they provide. Moreover, management practices based on behavioral research findings can further improve human performance. This chapter considers the function of screeners in weapons and explosives detection, and the role of guards, officers, and other aviation employees in discovering (and deterring) suspicious individuals or situations. Within the past 20 years, technology has greatly increased the capability and productivity of these security people. Metal detectors and...
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