How Knowledge of Perception Help Managers to Make Decision?

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  • Topic: Depth perception, Perception, Illusion
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  • Published : May 12, 2013
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9/24/09

Perception
•  What is perception and why is perception important?
•  Top-down and bottom-up perception
•  Perception as observer-dependent

Why is perception important?
•  We must connect to the world
–  Sources of energy around us. Some are good (light, sound, heat), some are bad (sharp objects, intense heat) –  They provide information to allow us to satisfy goals. –  Perception allows us to use this energy.

•  Grounding for abstract thought
–  False dichotomy between perception and cognition

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Perceptual modalities
•  We perceive many aspects of the world
–  Light in the visible spectrum (vision)
–  Air movement (hearing)
–  Infra-red radiation (heat)
–  Forces approaching dangerous levels (pain)
–  Presence of certain chemicals (taste + order)
–  Position and movement of our bodies (proprioception)

Perception and the brain
•  Visual information
–  Retina
–  Thalamus (like a relay station)
–  Occipital lobe
–  Information is initially separated by visual field
•  Left visual field to the right hemisphere
•  Right visual field to the left hemisphere

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Organization of vision
•  Finding edges
•  Detecting colors
•  Locating objects in space

Low level vision

Organization of vision
•  Determining object features
•  Figure ground recognition

Mid level vision Low level vision

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Organization of vision
•  Object recognition
•  Face recognition
•  Scene recognition
High level vision Mid level vision Low level vision

The problem of vision
•  Visual space is three dimensional
–  The retina of each eye is two-dimensional
–  Information about 3D must be extracted from 2D

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The problem of vision
•  Percepts are ambiguous
–  There are far more possibilities than we see
–  We search for the best interpretation
–  Vision immediately gives us objects (we don’t just see squiggles and textures) –  The visual system makes guesses about what is out in the world – how?

Constraints
•  Constraints limit the possibilities considered
•  Depth cues – how far away is an object?
–  Monocular cues
•  Stationary cues
•  Kinetic cues

–  Binocular cues

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Monocular cues
•  Interposition
–  Near things block farther things

•  Linear perspective
–  Things recede into the distance

Constraints and illusions
•  Sometimes the guesses made by the visual system turn out to be wrong. –  Kanizsa triangle (interposition)
–  The Muller-Lyer illusion (linear perspective)

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Monocular cues
•  Relative size
–  The same object makes a smaller retinal image when it is far away than when it is close.

Kinetic cues to depth
•  Motion parallax
–  Things that are closer move more closely than things that are far away. –  Animators make use of this cue.

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Binocular cues to depth
•  Convergence
–  When objects are very close, the eyes point inward.
–  When objects are at a distance, the eyes point in a more parallel direction.

Binocular cues to depth
•  Stereopsis
–  Your eyes are a few inches apart
•  They get slightly different views of an object.

–  The visual system matches up the images from each eye •  The amount of disparity between corresponding points is used as a measure of distance. •  Images do not need to have meaning.

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Stereograms give rise to the illusion of depth

Stereograms give rise to the illusion of depth

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Stereograms give rise to the illusion of depth

Perceptual Illusions
•  Why study illusions?
–  Illusions reveal constraints/biases on perception
•  Constraints are perceptual assumptions that we make
–  Usually correct but occasionally wrong
–  When wrong, illusion results

•  Illusions come from helpful processes
–  Without constraints, no perception at all!
–  Our perceptual system is biased to emphasize...
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