How Knowledge of Perception Help Managers to Make Decision?

Topics: Depth perception, Perception, Illusion Pages: 13 (1422 words) Published: May 12, 2013

•  What is perception and why is perception important?
•  Top-down and bottom-up perception
•  Perception as observer-dependent

Why is perception important?
•  We must connect to the world
–  Sources of energy around us. Some are good (light, sound, heat), some are bad (sharp objects, intense heat) –  They provide information to allow us to satisfy goals. –  Perception allows us to use this energy.

•  Grounding for abstract thought
–  False dichotomy between perception and cognition



Perceptual modalities
•  We perceive many aspects of the world
–  Light in the visible spectrum (vision)
–  Air movement (hearing)
–  Infra-red radiation (heat)
–  Forces approaching dangerous levels (pain)
–  Presence of certain chemicals (taste + order)
–  Position and movement of our bodies (proprioception)

Perception and the brain
•  Visual information
–  Retina
–  Thalamus (like a relay station)
–  Occipital lobe
–  Information is initially separated by visual field
•  Left visual field to the right hemisphere
•  Right visual field to the left hemisphere



Organization of vision
•  Finding edges
•  Detecting colors
•  Locating objects in space

Low level vision

Organization of vision
•  Determining object features
•  Figure ground recognition

Mid level vision Low level vision



Organization of vision
•  Object recognition
•  Face recognition
•  Scene recognition
High level vision Mid level vision Low level vision

The problem of vision
•  Visual space is three dimensional
–  The retina of each eye is two-dimensional
–  Information about 3D must be extracted from 2D



The problem of vision
•  Percepts are ambiguous
–  There are far more possibilities than we see
–  We search for the best interpretation
–  Vision immediately gives us objects (we don’t just see squiggles and textures) –  The visual system makes guesses about what is out in the world – how?

•  Constraints limit the possibilities considered
•  Depth cues – how far away is an object?
–  Monocular cues
•  Stationary cues
•  Kinetic cues

–  Binocular cues



Monocular cues
•  Interposition
–  Near things block farther things

•  Linear perspective
–  Things recede into the distance

Constraints and illusions
•  Sometimes the guesses made by the visual system turn out to be wrong. –  Kanizsa triangle (interposition)
–  The Muller-Lyer illusion (linear perspective)





Monocular cues
•  Relative size
–  The same object makes a smaller retinal image when it is far away than when it is close.

Kinetic cues to depth
•  Motion parallax
–  Things that are closer move more closely than things that are far away. –  Animators make use of this cue.



Binocular cues to depth
•  Convergence
–  When objects are very close, the eyes point inward.
–  When objects are at a distance, the eyes point in a more parallel direction.

Binocular cues to depth
•  Stereopsis
–  Your eyes are a few inches apart
•  They get slightly different views of an object.

–  The visual system matches up the images from each eye •  The amount of disparity between corresponding points is used as a measure of distance. •  Images do not need to have meaning.



Stereograms give rise to the illusion of depth

Stereograms give rise to the illusion of depth



Stereograms give rise to the illusion of depth

Perceptual Illusions
•  Why study illusions?
–  Illusions reveal constraints/biases on perception
•  Constraints are perceptual assumptions that we make
–  Usually correct but occasionally wrong
–  When wrong, illusion results

•  Illusions come from helpful processes
–  Without constraints, no perception at all!
–  Our perceptual system is biased to emphasize...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • How to make better decisions Essay
  • how creativity can help you to make decision Essay
  • How to Make Economic Decisions Essay
  • How to Make Smart Decisions Research Paper
  • Perception Essay
  • How People Make Economic Decisions Essay
  • How People Make Economic Decisions Essay
  • How People Make Economic Decisions Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free