One of the first persons to sit down and try to work out what managers do (and what they should do) was a Frenchman called Henri Fayol. Fayol was born in Istanbul in 1841 in a French middle class family. After his graduation in 1860, he began working as an engineer at a large mining company in France (S.A. commentart-Fourchambault). He eventually became the director, at a time when the mining company employed more than 1,000 people in. Through the years, Fayol began to develop what he considered to be the 14 most important principles of management. Essentially, these explained how managers should organize and interact with staff. In 1916, two years before he stepped down as director, he published his "14 Principles of Management" in the book "Administration Industrielle et Generale." Fayol also created a list of the six primary functions of management, which go hand in hand with the Principles. Fayol's "14 Principles" was one of the earliest theories of management to be created, and remains one of the most comprehensive. He's considered to be among the most influential contributors to the modern concept of management, even though people don't refer to "The 14 Principles" often today.
F.W Tylor, the father of scientific management focused his attention on the problem of shop floor, while Henry Fayol concentrated on the problems of top management. He was first to formulate and develop the universal principle of administration applicable to both government and private administration. He is the original exponent of the functional principles of organisation. That is why he has been called Fayol, the Universalist. He is generally hailed as the founder of the classical management school-not because he was the first to investigate managerial behaviour, but because he was the first to systemize it. Fayol believed that sound management practice falls into certain patterns that can be identified and analyze. From this basic insight, he drew up a blueprint for a cohesive doctrine of management, one that retains much of its force to this day. With his faith in scientific methods, Fayol was like Taylor, his contemporary. While Taylor was basically concerned with organisational functions, however, Fayol was interested in the total organisation and focused on management, which he felt, had been the most neglected of business operations. General Principles of Management
Fayol observed," The real reason for the absence of management teaching is absence of theory, without theory no teaching is possible. Everyone needs some concepts of management in the home and in the affairs of state." Fayol formulated detailed 'Principles of Management'. On the basis of his experience, he has laid down fourteen important principles for an administrator. Though he identified fourteen principles, he was quite flexible in his views: " There is nothing rigid or absolute in management affairs, it is all a question of proportion . . . therefore, principles are flexible and capable of adaptation to every need, it is a matter of knowing how to make use of them, which is a difficult art requiring intelligence, experience, decision, and proportion." The fourteen principles enunciated by Fayol are as follows: 1. Division of work:
This is well known principle of specialisation. Divisions of work promote efficiency. Fayol advocated for division of work. According to him, "Specialisation belongs to the natural order . . . The worker always on the same part, the manager concerned always with the same matters; acquire an ability, sureness, and accuracy which increase their output. Each change of work brings in its train an adaptation which reduces output . . . yet division of work has its limits which experience and a sense of proportion teach us may not be exceeded. The more people specialize, the more efficiently they can perform their work." 2. Authority and Responsibility:
Authority is the right to give order and the power to get...