A. In my essay will explain how an understanding of human growth and development can assist the counsellor in responding to the needs of the client. I have chosen three theories in three different models. My first model is psychodynamic and I will look at Sigmund frauds theory of development. The second model is humanistic and I will be covering Rogers and Maslow. My last model I will cover in this essay is social Erikson’s lifespan development theory. My essay will look at the theories and the application of each theory and I shall explain how an understanding of human growth and development can assist the counsellor in responding to the needs of the client.
II. Psychodynamics Sigmund Fraud psychosexual stages
A. In any persons period of life they will go through 5 stages (Gerald Corey).these stages are called the psychosexual stages (theory and practice of counselling and psychotherapy). Before going over the psychosexual stages, the id and the ego and super ego needs to be addressed as it is one of the biggest components in the personality theory (about.com). All humans are born with an id (about.com) it is the unconscious part of humans which is spoilt and always wants (simpl.com).the ego later develops to rationalise the id and is in contact with the external world (simple.com), later the super ego is formed in the oredpuss stage. it is made up of moral codes , values that have been passed down .the super ego manly controls the id acting from impulses (sex,aggression) (allpsych.com) and convinces the ego realistic rather than moral. Each stage is different, some are longer and some shorter, but it is imperative that each stage is completed and each stage is as equally as important as the other. It is important to complete each stage in order to become healthy adults(Gerald Corey) .the five stages are as follows: oral, this is the first year of life (Gerald Corey) lips are sceneries, breast is needed and nurturing is needed. If a child does not receive this personality problems may occur in later life also feelings of greediness (Gerald Corey). 1-3 is the anal stage where by children learn their independence and there anatomy, parents cannot be to stricked about potty training nor can parents over praise their children for toilet training (Gerald Corey). If tot lit training is not handled sufficiently then later in life there can be personality disorders, eg, anal-aggressive, cruelty. Or anal retentive, stubbiness’. An age 3-6 is the phallic stage. Children feel threatened by the Other parent. Oedipus complex, mother is a love object and in girls it is the Electra complex, girls strive for fathers love (Gerald Corey). At this stage unconscious urges, desires for the parent is formed (Gerald Corey), boys wish to do away with their father, who they see as a threat, the boy has sexual urges for mother (Gerald Corey). The boy represses these feelings out of fear of father’s reactions. This is called, castration anxiety (fear of genital, the penis being cut off) (Gerald Corey) by father. These urges are soon replaced with appropriate forms of attachment. At this point the young boy can identify with father thus embracing Meany of father’s characteristics (Gerald Corey). With the Electra complex it’s about the clitoris. A girl looks at her mother as love objects (Gerald Cory). This stage turns the love object from mother to father, negative feelings for mother develop when the young girl recognizes mother has no penis (penis envy) (Gerald Cory). At this stage girls are trying to get fathers affection and compete with mother (Gerald Corey), but soon realize it is impossible to replace mother and just like the ordupipus complex, begin to identify with the same sex parent and develop appropriate forms of attachment. The next stage is latency 6-12. This stage is about forming relationships in the form of socialization. The sexual drive is redirected...
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