Pervious Findings Based on HMA Containing Unmodified Binder Williams (2003) explored the relationships between HMA mixture properties and rutting susceptibility as measured by wheel-tracking devices. He concluded that many factors, such as voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) , asphalt binder PG grade, and binder content, played a role in the rutting characteristics of HMA samples. Although regression analyses were unable to establish valid mathematical relationships, several trends were observed as summarized below. Thiessen et al. (2000) investigated the correlations between material properties and strength parameters measured in the laboratory with the observed rutting behaviour in the field. It was found that physical mixture properties cannot by themselves explain the observed rutting performance of the pavements tested. Regression analyses of both as-constructed and recovered core properties show poor correlations to the rate of rutting. Zhu et al. (2001) investigated the feasibility of replacing wheel-tracking test by a repeated-load creep test for evaluating HMA rutting potential. Based on the findings of the test results, favourable conclusions concerning the use of the repeated-load creep test for rutting potential were drawn. Zhu concluded that the correlation between the two types of tests was good for all three asphalt mixtures investigated. Thiessen et al. (2000) investigated the rutting performance of asphalt pavements in Manitoba, Canada. Samples taken from the field were tested using modified indirect tensile tests. Analysis of test results clearly showed that the measured deformation and Poisson’s ratio obtained from the indirect tensile test were closely related to field rutting behaviour. Christensen et al. (2002) evaluated the use of indirect tensile test and unconfined compressive test to assess rutting potential. Their research showed that both indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength were good predictors of the rut...
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