INF103: Computer Literacy (ACD1234T)
Instructor: LaMeika Gupton
September 24, 2012
History of Artificial Intelligence.
Even though Founders of AI John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon failed to recognize the difficulty of some of the problems they faced, they were still extremely optimistic regarding the future of this new field. Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. Artificial Intelligence textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents.’ This field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans intelligence-the sapience of homosapiens- can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. Artificial Intelligence has evolved dramatically from its early roots, which were driven by numerous dedicated researchers. The early evolution of Artificial Intelligence dates way back before the time of electronics, to philosophers and mathematicians such as George Boole and others who had theorized on principles that were used as the foundations and building blocks of all Artificial Intelligence logic. There is even evidence which suggests that that thinking machines and artificial beings appeared in Greek myths, such as Talos of Crete, the bronze robot of Hephaestus, and Pygmalion’s Galatea. In 1941 an invention revolutionized every aspect of the storage and processing of information. This ingenious machine was the electronic computer and it was developed in both the US and Germany. Many believed that the technology was finally available to simulate intelligent behavior. Over the next four decades, and countless obstacles, Artificial Intelligence was able to expand from a few dozen researchers to thousands of engineers and specialists; and from simple programs that were able to play a game of checkers to astonishing systems that were designed to diagnose many diseases. We have certainly made some major advances from that pivotal point in the history of Artificial Intelligence, which began in 1941. When the first computers were introduced they required their own air-conditioned room, and had thousands of wires for the programmers to sort through and configure before they could even run a program. Nowadays we have the luxury of holding a computer in our lap, or even in the palm of our hand. Although the computer was the gateway for the technology needed for Artificial Intelligence, the link between human Intelligence and machines was not truly recognized until the early 1950’s by an American named Norbert Wiener. Norbert had a theory that all intelligent actions were the direct result of some sort of feedback mechanism. His most notable example of this theory was the thermostat. In the example of his theory he states: “It controls the temperature of an environment by gathering the actual temperature of the house, comparing it to the desired temperature, and responding by turning the heat up or down.” His discovery was that mechanisms could possibly be stimulated by machines. And it was this discovery that helped to spur most of the early development of Artificial Intelligence. In 1956 John McCarthy whom is known as the father of Artificial Intelligence, put together and held a conference in which he hoped would bring in many talented individuals with various expertise in machine intelligence so that they could have a month of brainstorming. Those individuals were invited to Vermont to take part in a research project, which was called “The Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence.” Because of John McCarthy and his summer research project the field was known from that point on as Artificial Intelligence. Even though the Dartmouth conference could hardly be noted as a huge success, it is was responsible for the enablement of the founders in Artificial Intelligence...