History of Western Music

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  • Topic: Medieval music, Gregorian chant, Music
  • Pages : 8 (2730 words )
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  • Published : October 30, 2010
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History Of Western Music
Chapter #1  Direct unison-everyone in an ensemble sings the music together  Antiphony-alternations of groups of singers  Responsorial-alteration of soloist and group of singers  Contrafactum-take a set melody and replace existing lyrics with new ones  Gregorian chant- also known as : “Carolinian chant”, monophonic, limited melodic range, unmeasured rhythm, based on modes :  Syllabic-one note per syllable  Neumatic-2-6 notes per syllable  Melismatic-many notes per syllable  Strophic-same music for each line of changing text  Liturgy- the text of the Mass, this text was used for Gregorian chants  Ordinary Mass- 5 prayers that always represent the Mass; • Kyrie=Lord • Gloria=Glory • Credo=I Believe • Sanctus=Holy • Agnus Dei=Lamb of God  Proper Mass- prayer that alternates for particular days or services • Introit=introduction • Gradual=walking down the steps, transition music • Offertory=during the offering  Incipit-beginning text  Cantor-person leading the songs, chants, prayers  Finalis-root/tonic note  Subfinalis-notes on the lines on the scale  Chironomy-contour of pitches, first indication of music notation, oral tradition  Heterophony-singing a monophonic song, then repeating with embellishments (not counterpoint)  Polyphony-the combination of two or more independent lines of music, originated in Paris, France/ known as Organum  Organum-earliest known polyphony  Parallel Organum-two parts moving in either parallel 4ths or 5ths below the chant, occasionally one or both parts double at octave (organum triplum/duadruplum), sometimes parts move from and return to unison/ consonances=unison, 4th‘s, and 5th’s  Plainsong OR Vox Principalis-other terms now used for Gregorian Chant  Vox Organalis-the added voice in a Gregorian Chant/Plainsong/Vox Principalis

 Free Organum-parts moving in contrary, parallel, similar, or oblique motion, increased the variety of sounds, added more independence to the counterpoint than what was present in Parallel Organum  Tenor-sustained chant notes that usually sound under the Aquitanian Organum  Aquitanian Organum- melismatic counterpoint, also called Duplum, sung over the sustained chant notes(Tenor), (Florid Organum, Melismatic Organum, or St. Martial Organum were terms also used to describe this type of Organum)  Measured Organum-introduced measured rhythm through the use of six rhythmic modes  Notre Dame Organum-other term used for measured organum because of two composers, Leonin and Perotin, who composed for the church  Discant Style-measured organum that included a clausula, a closed section where all voices moved in measured rhythm  Clausula-“closed” section in measured organum where all voices moved in measured rhythm, known as Discant style  Conductus-at first a monophonic song of sacred, rhymed, Latin Poems, probably during religious service when priest transitioned from one location in the church to another (prep. For communion, procession, etc./ later the term was applied to ANY song in Latin with a sacred or secular metrical test/ By the Perotin Notre Dame era, voice parts (2 to 4) moved in homorhythm/ Tenor was based on original music instead of Gregorian Chant, making this the 1st polyphonic music in which a composer wrote totally original music  Ordo Virtutum-considered the first morality play, written by Hildegard Von Bingen, who composed the music, texts, and designed the costume and set  Hildegard Von Bingen-Abbess of Rupertsberg who composed all monophonic music, wrote on a variety of scientific & theological issues, famous since her youth for her mystical visions, she toured Europe as a preacher & lecturer, she wrote “Ordo Virtutum” (considered the 1st morality play)  Ars Antiqua-“Old Art”, the time in the medieval period that the organum, conductus, and motet evolved, these developments were centered around the Notre Dame Cathedral o Characteristics:  Use of the 6 rhythmic modes  Use of Gregorian Chant for...
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