History Of Western Music
Chapter #1 Direct unison-everyone in an ensemble sings the music together Antiphony-alternations of groups of singers Responsorial-alteration of soloist and group of singers Contrafactum-take a set melody and replace existing lyrics with new ones Gregorian chant- also known as : “Carolinian chant”, monophonic, limited melodic range, unmeasured rhythm, based on modes : Syllabic-one note per syllable Neumatic-2-6 notes per syllable Melismatic-many notes per syllable Strophic-same music for each line of changing text Liturgy- the text of the Mass, this text was used for Gregorian chants Ordinary Mass- 5 prayers that always represent the Mass; • Kyrie=Lord • Gloria=Glory • Credo=I Believe • Sanctus=Holy • Agnus Dei=Lamb of God Proper Mass- prayer that alternates for particular days or services • Introit=introduction • Gradual=walking down the steps, transition music • Offertory=during the offering Incipit-beginning text Cantor-person leading the songs, chants, prayers Finalis-root/tonic note Subfinalis-notes on the lines on the scale Chironomy-contour of pitches, first indication of music notation, oral tradition Heterophony-singing a monophonic song, then repeating with embellishments (not counterpoint) Polyphony-the combination of two or more independent lines of music, originated in Paris, France/ known as Organum Organum-earliest known polyphony Parallel Organum-two parts moving in either parallel 4ths or 5ths below the chant, occasionally one or both parts double at octave (organum triplum/duadruplum), sometimes parts move from and return to unison/ consonances=unison, 4th‘s, and 5th’s Plainsong OR Vox Principalis-other terms now used for Gregorian Chant Vox Organalis-the added voice in a Gregorian Chant/Plainsong/Vox Principalis
Free Organum-parts moving in contrary, parallel, similar, or oblique motion, increased the variety of sounds, added more independence to the counterpoint than what was present in Parallel Organum Tenor-sustained chant notes that usually sound under the Aquitanian Organum Aquitanian Organum- melismatic counterpoint, also called Duplum, sung over the sustained chant notes(Tenor), (Florid Organum, Melismatic Organum, or St. Martial Organum were terms also used to describe this type of Organum) Measured Organum-introduced measured rhythm through the use of six rhythmic modes Notre Dame Organum-other term used for measured organum because of two composers, Leonin and Perotin, who composed for the church Discant Style-measured organum that included a clausula, a closed section where all voices moved in measured rhythm Clausula-“closed” section in measured organum where all voices moved in measured rhythm, known as Discant style Conductus-at first a monophonic song of sacred, rhymed, Latin Poems, probably during religious service when priest transitioned from one location in the church to another (prep. For communion, procession, etc./ later the term was applied to ANY song in Latin with a sacred or secular metrical test/ By the Perotin Notre Dame era, voice parts (2 to 4) moved in homorhythm/ Tenor was based on original music instead of Gregorian Chant, making this the 1st polyphonic music in which a composer wrote totally original music Ordo Virtutum-considered the first morality play, written by Hildegard Von Bingen, who composed the music, texts, and designed the costume and set Hildegard Von Bingen-Abbess of Rupertsberg who composed all monophonic music, wrote on a variety of scientific & theological issues, famous since her youth for her mystical visions, she toured Europe as a preacher & lecturer, she wrote “Ordo Virtutum” (considered the 1st morality play) Ars Antiqua-“Old Art”, the time in the medieval period that the organum, conductus, and motet evolved, these developments were centered around the Notre Dame Cathedral o Characteristics: Use of the 6 rhythmic modes Use of Gregorian Chant for...
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