History of Psychological Assessment Tools

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The History of psychological assessment tools in America is a wide spread measure of testing that has historical roots. In this paper, I will examine the history of psychological assessment tools, the types of assessments being used today, and the validity of assessment tools.

What is psychological assessment?
Psychological assessment is a process that involves information from a series of sources, like personality tests, intelligence tests and personal interviews. Many psychologists do some level of assessments when providing care to clients, and may use simple check lists to assess some traits or systems; however, psychological assessments are more complex and detailed (Parkinson, 1997). Typically, psychological assessments provide certain diagnosis for treatment depending on the settings such as: a particular area of functioning or disability often for school, to help courts settle issues with custody battles or trials, or to assess job applicants or employees, and provide career development training for many employers. The field of psychometrics, as the measurement of behavior is not a part time endeavor; however, it is a full time occupation for not only individuals, but corporations as well (Thomas, 1977). There are over a dozen well known test publishing houses employing hundreds of professionals whose constant search is for a more refined instrument. Literally thousands of aptitude, achievement, personality, interest, and other special types of tests exist today compared to fifty or sixty years ago when there was only a handful (Madius, 1999). Tests in general have been around for a long time. Some of the major events in testing during the 20th century are: 1900-1909, Army Alpha Beta test, Spearman’s Factors in Intelligence, the Woodworth Personal data sheet, and the Otis Absolute Point Scale (Jones, 2006), 1920-1929, Rorschach Ink Blot Test, Strong Vocational Interest Blank Test, Clark’s Aptitude Testing, 1930-1939. Thurstones’s Primary Mental Abilities, Kuder Preference Scale Record, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Piagets Ongoing Intelligence, 1940-1949, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale, 1950-1959, Guilford’s the Nature of Human Intelligence, National Defense Education Act, and Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, 1960-1969, National Assessment of Educational Progress, Weschsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence, Kuder Occupational Interest Survey, and the Cattell’s Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence. 1970-1979, Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, Peabody Picture Test, Use of Computers in Testing and the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment, 1980-1989, Thorndike, Hagen, and Stattlers revision of the Stanford Binet, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, and Test in Print III, 1990-2000, Stanford Binet V, Wide Range Achievement Test (3rd Edition), Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale III, and the Early Mathematics Diagnostic Assessment (Jones, 2006). Accordingly, the psychological tests that were listed previously gives insight to the number of years our society has been testing individuals. Each test listed represented various forms of testing that met the needs of all people including children. We can see that the testing era is about one hundred years old. The major move was during the 20th century. During World War I and World War II, these tests, including individual and groups, played a huge part to whether or not people were chosen for certain positions (Jones, 2006). Psychological tests assess and evaluate the information a person gives to the psychologists. This information can be given in a form of answers to interview questions, answers on paper, or on a computer to specific questions (Chou, 2000). There are many types of psychological tests that can be given. Types of test given are the achievement and aptitude tests....
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