The Oriental Mathematics : Practical Arithmatic and Mensuration ¢º Characteristic of Orient Mathematics|
¢º Babylonian Mathematics|
¢º Egyptian Mathematics|
¢º Marking of Number|
| ¡Ý The Egytian Hieroglyphic|
| ¡Ý The Babylonian Cuneiform|
| ¡Ý The Mayan Numeral System|
| ¡Ý The Roman Numeral System|
| ¡Ý The Hindu - Arabic Numeral Systern|

¡ß Characteristic of Orient Mathematics In the Nile in Africa, the Tigris and Euphrates in western Asia, the Indus and then the Ganges in south-central Asia, and the Hwang Ho and then the Yangtze in eastern Asia, there was ancient nations called the ancient 4-civilizations until 2000 B.C. The major economic activities of the ancient nations was to manage their farmlands and to control their products. Thus,early mathematics can be said to have originated in certain areas of the ancient Orient (the world east of Greece) primarily as a practical science to assist in agriculture, engineering, and business pursuits, that is the initial emphasis of the early mathematics was on practical arithmetic and measuration. Algebra ultimately evolved from arithmetic and the beginnings of theoretical geometry grew out of measuration. However that in all ancient Oriental mathematics one cannot find even a single instance of what we today call a demonstration, and one cannot find the reason to get the answer so to speak 'Do it this way' then 'Get the answer'. That is many difference from ancient Greek mathematics. Mathematics was one of the essencial parts in the ancient civilization. Today the only record is the Egypt and Babylonia's. Finally, the orient mathematics could not be developed because it was a'living mathematics'. The Babylonians used imperishable baked clay tablets and the Egyptians used stone and papyrus, the latter fortunately being long lasting because of the unusually dry climate of the region. But the early Chinese and lndians used very perishable media like bark...

...path of human achievement and enlightenment. Mathematics describes the world around us with a clean precision, in angles, lines, and equations. You might wonder how, of all things, the peaceful study of math could possibly have an influence over the brutish nature of war. For the answer, you need only to examine the various tools and plans that have been developed and used in warfare throughout history. It can be seen that advancements in mathematics and technology throughout history has had a profound effect on what kinds of weapons, from axes and metal swords to Intercontinental missiles, warfare has been fought with and what strategies have been used to fight wars and maintain armies.
Part I: Weapons
The most obvious thing that comes to mind when you think of war is weapons. From wood and stone clubs to laser guided missiles and tanks, the overall purpose of weapons has not changed at all since the time of our ancient ancestors, but they have indeed changed and evolved to go with the times, to better suit the needs of the societies using them. Underneath it all, mathematics and technology have always been the driving forces behind the innovation of weaponry. Granted, it has been the needs of society that has pushed for deadlier, larger, and more innovative weapons, but math has always been the biggest driving force in getting to those goals. There is proof that Prehistoric humans had been using primitive...

...Paper - I
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka;...

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ANALYSIS
Physics has a lot of topics to cover. In the previous experiments, we discussed Forces, Kinematics, and Motions. In this experiment, the focus is all about Friction. Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction like fluid friction which describes the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other; dry friction which resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact and is subdivided into static friction between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces; lubricated friction which is a case of fluid friction where a fluid separates two solid surfaces; skin friction which is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a fluid across the surface of a body; internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation and sliding friction.
When surfaces in contact move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into heat. This property can have dramatic consequences, as illustrated by the use of friction created by rubbing pieces of wood together to start a fire. Kinetic energy is converted to heat whenever motion with friction occurs, for example when a viscous fluid is stirred. Another important consequence of many types of friction can be wear,...

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The case between Beauty and Stylish involves concept of a valid contract, pre-contractual statements, express term and misrepresentation.
A valid contract is established between Beauty and Stylish when an offer is accepted and there is intention for both parties to create legal relations. An offer refers to the expression of willingness of the offerer to be contractually bound by an agreement if his or her offer is properly accepted. It has to be clear and certain in terms. It must also be communicated to the offeree before it is being accepted. In addition, the acceptance has to be unqualified, unconditional and made by a positive act. In the case of Beauty and Stylish, a positive act refers to the signing of the contract. All terms of the offer must be accepted without any changes and cannot be subjected to any condition, taking effect only upon fulfillment of that condition. When Beauty and Stylish enter into the agreement, they must intend to bind and bound legally to each other by their agreement. This is the intention to create legal relations between two parties. In the meanwhile, this contract must possess consideration. A contract must therefore be a two-sided affair, with each side providing or promising to provide something of value in exchange for what the other is to provide.
Every contract, whether oral or written, contain terms. The terms of a contract set out the rights and duties of the parties. Terms are the promises and undertakings given by each...

...Mathematical Report:
Knowledge and Understanding 2
This report aims to examine the historical and cultural development of mathematics and how it stands today with the current decimal system and modern curriculum. Exploring the differences between numeracy and mathematics and also the recent introduction of functional skills, I shall also discuss the significance of zero and place value and how links and generalisations can be made between mathematical concepts. Furthermore, this report shall examine how teaching and learning theories influence the way in which we understand maths through the process of problem solving, generalisations, assumptions and proof, and also the common errors and misconceptions that may result from this.
THE HISTORY OF MATHS
From around 2000BC the Babylonian civilisation brought a style of mathematics which succeeded the Sumerian-Akkadian system following their invasion of Mesopotamia. As the oldest example of numeration that used place value systems, the Babylonians had an advanced number system now known as ‘base 60’. This was unlike the ‘base 10’ system that is in widespread use today, although time is still organised in this way. The Babylonians divided the day into 24 hours, each hour into 60 minutes and each minute into 60 seconds (O’Connor and Robertson, 2000). Like our own decimal system today which is a positional system comprised of nine special symbols and a 0 to denote an empty space,...

...Fibonacci had actually replaced the old Roman numeral system with theHindu-Arabic numbering system, which consists of Hindu-Arabic(0-9) symbols.
There were some disadvantages with the Roman numeral system: Firstly, it didnot have 0's and lacked place value; Secondly, an abacus was usually requiredwhen using the system. However, Fibonacci saw the superiority of using Hindu-Arabic system and that is the reason why we have our numbering system today.
1He had included the explanation of our current numbering system in his bookLiber Abaci". The book was published in 1202 after his return to Italy. It wasbased on the arithmetic and algebra that Fibonacci had accumulated during histravels.
In the third section of his book Liber Abaci", there is a math questionthat triggers another great invention of mankind. The problem goes like this:A certain man put a pair of rabbits in a place surrounded on all sides by awall. How many pairs of rabbits can be produced from that pair in a year if it issupposed that every month each pair begets a new pair, which from the secondmonth on becomes productive? This was the problem that led Fibonacci to theintroduction of the Fibonacci Numbers and the Fibonacci Sequence. What isso special about the sequence? Let's take a look at it. The sequence is listed asSn=f1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, g(1)Starting from 1, each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers. Writingmathematically, the sequence looks likeSn=f8 i > 2; i 2 Z;...

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Today one of the most cherished ideologies of America is the fact that everyone is and should be created equal. With this cherished ideology bringing a sense of pride and diversity to America we must keep in mind that this cherished ideology did not always exist. Since 1865 various individuals and groups have not been able to receive and express their rights to full equal status in the United States. These different individuals and groups have seemingly fought for their rights in equality and have become pioneers in the fight for evolution for equality.
In 1865 African Americans in the United States under the 13th amendment were freed from the terrible burden of slavery. Through the 14th amendment they were given the right to citizenship and the right to equal protection. The 15th amendment gave them the right to vote regardless of their skin color race or any other type of servitude. These amendments were meant to be enforced and make a serious change in the everyday life of the average American.
With these amendments passing in 1865 they were meant to make a serious change towards the evolution of equality. These changes did not seem to happen right away and African Americans were still not being treated with equality. The average African American at this time were being denied there newly given rights every day making life extremely hard to stay...