In some societies, in the late 18th century and early 19th century, these developed within the context of maintaining a layered social structure and the protection of property. In the United Kingdom in the late 18th century: The modern police department was born out of...the desire of the wealthy to restructure ... society. The swelling population of urban poor, whose miniscule [sic] wages could hardly sustain them, heightened the need for police protection]In the United States in the 19th century: The police role was only minimally directed at law enforcement. Its primary function was serving as the enforcement arm of the reigning political power, protecting property, and keeping control of the ever increasing numbers of foreign immigrants(http://wiki.ask.com/Law_enforcement_and_society) In 1690 John Locke wrote that:[t]he great and chief end ... of men's uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property Similarly, Adam Smith described how:.. as the necessity of civil government gradually grows up with the acquisition of valuable property, so the principal causes which naturally introduce subordination gradually grow up with the growth of that valuable property ... Wherever there is great property there is great inequality. For one very rich man there must be at least five hundred poor, and the affluence of the few supposes the indigence of the many. The affluence of the rich excites the indignation of the poor, who are often both driven by want, and prompted by envy; to invade his possessions ... The appropriation of herds and flocks which introduced an inequality of fortune was that which first gave rise to regular government. Till there be property there can be no government, the very end of which is to secure wealth, and to defend the rich from the poor. (http://wiki.ask.com/Law_enforcement_and_society) The first modern police force, commonly said to be the London Metropolitan Police, established in 1829, promoted the preventive role of police as a deterrent to urban crime and disorder.Law enforcement however has only ever constituted a small portion of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different contexts, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order and the provision of services.[ ^ Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. Pluto Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-7453-1489-1.
There are several types of Law Enforcement agencies in the US, these are the main ones each having different levels of jurisdiction: Federal Police
Federal Police report at the highest level and have full authority given to them by the U.S.C (United States Code). They have full jurisdiction for all federal law enforcement. State Police
State Police may also be known as Highway patrol, their main purpose is to oversee traffic safety and compliance, they are responsible to assist with road traffic accidents and securing the scene and providing first aid if needed. Their job is to enforce laws and regulations to make roads safer. County Police
County Police are generally only found in city counties and have countywide jurisdiction. In some counties you have County police as well as a sheriff’s department. Sheriff's Police A Sheriff is the top law enforcement of the county. The law enforcement agencies that have a Sheriff are known as Sheriff's department or Sheriff's county. There are over 3000 Sheriffs departments in the US, some very small rural areas with only two or three members. The largest Sheriff's department in the US is Los Angeles, with over 16,000 members with approximately 400 reserve deputies. Municipal Police
Municipal Police range from very small agencies to the largest is the New York City Police department with up to 40,000 members. Municipal police are controlled and paid by...