History of India - Sangam Age

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Sangam Literature was written in the ‘Sangam Age’, which is not a concrete time range. Some literature may have been written as long ago as 10,000 BCE, but most was written from c. 400 BCE to c. 400 CE. of

Between 350 BCE to 200 CE, South India (mostly Tamil Nadu) was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties of Chola, Pandya and Chera.

The Cholas

The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of two centuries and more. During the rule of Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola I, Cholas were transformed into a military, economic and cultural power.  During the period 1010–1200, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. They conquered peninsular South India, parts of what is now Sri Lanka and some of the islands of the Maldives. They conquered the territories of the Pala ruler of Pataliputra in North India, and they conquered some kingdoms of the Malaysian archipelago as well. The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Later Pandyas, who ultimately caused their downfall. The Pandyas

They were well known since ancient times, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire. During the 13th century AD, Marco Polo mentioned it as the richest empire in existence. The early Pandyan Dynasty of the Sangam Age faded into obscurity upon the invasion of the Kalabhras. The dynasty was revived in the early 6th century, pushed the Kalabhras out of South India. They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. The Later Pandyas (1216–1345) expanded their empire...
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